Keyboard protocol for shortcuts negotiation
Browsers allow a web application to intercept and F1..F12 keys. If the web application doesn't use a key like F1, then it can be intercepted by a browser extension, if the browser extension doesn't use it, then they key is handled by browser (showing help in case of F1).
In VTE based terminals the processing of keys like F1 doesn't depend on application needs. For example, if Gnome terminal uses F1 to show its own help, then users who need F1 for a program inside the terminal (such as Visual Studio), need to find a way to explicitly disable the key in terminal settings (if that terminal supports this).
Because current terminal protocols are one way push of terminal control sequences with no feedback loop (correct me if there are alternatives), the solution is to introduce a new protocol for negotiation of keyboard shortcuts, that will also allow users to give permissions on per application basis.
The negotiation process could resemble they way browser warn users about video go full screen, or how they are asking for permission to use camera and microphone.
Kind of a stretch goal, but if highly interactive apps like games for desktop can ask (or use) exclusive keys access, then similar apps in terminal should be as performant and convenient if not more.