Commit 04fbb743 authored by Carlos Garnacho's avatar Carlos Garnacho

Add GtkStyleContext migration docs.

parent fb97bd1f
......@@ -125,6 +125,7 @@ content_files = \
migrating-2to3.xml \
migrating-checklist.sgml \
migrating-GtkApplication.xml \
migrating-GtkStyleContext.xml \
objects_grouped.sgml \
osx.sgml \
question_index.sgml \
......@@ -147,6 +148,7 @@ expand_content_files = \
migrating-2to3.xml \
migrating-checklist.sgml \
migrating-GtkApplication.xml \
migrating-GtkStyleContext.xml \
question_index.sgml \
text_widget.sgml \
tree_widget.sgml
......
......@@ -342,6 +342,7 @@
<xi:include href="xml/migrating-checklist.sgml" />
<xi:include href="xml/migrating-2to3.xml" />
<xi:include href="xml/migrating-GtkApplication.xml" />
<xi:include href="xml/migrating-GtkStyleContext.xml" />
</part>
<part>
......
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE chapter PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.3//EN"
"http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.3/docbookx.dtd" [
]>
<chapter id="gtk-migrating-GtkStyleContext">
<title>Migrating from GtkStyle to GtkStyleContext</title>
<para>
In GTK+ 3.0, GTK+ was added GtkStyleContext to replace GtkStyle and
the theming infrastructure available in 2.x. GtkStyleContext is an
object similar in spirit to GtkStyle, as it contains theming information,
although in a more complete and tokenized fashion. Moving to #GtkStyleContext
is twofold, there is themes and theming engines on one
side, and applications, widgets and libraries on the other.
</para>
<refsect2 id="gtk-migrating-GtkStyleContext-themes">
<title>Migrating themes</title>
<para>
From GTK+ 3.0 on, theme engines must implement #GtkThemingEngine and be installed
in <literal>$(libdir)/gtk+-3.0/$(GTK_VERSION)/theming-engines</literal>, and
the files containing style information must be written in the CSS format as
parsed by #GtkCssProvider. For a theme named "Clearlooks", the CSS file parsed
by default would be <literal>$(sharedir)/themes/Clearlooks/gtk-3.0/gtk.css</literal>,
with possible variants such as the dark theme being named as "gtk-dark.css" in
the same directory.
</para>
</refsect2>
<refsect2 id="gtk-migrating-theme-GtkStyleContext-engines">
<title>Migrating theme engines</title>
<para>
Migrating a #GtkStyle based engine to a #GtkThemingEngine based one should
be straightforward for most of the vmethods. Besides a cleanup in the available
paint methods and a cleanup in the parameters passed (in favor of #GtkStyleContext
containing all the information), the available render methods should resemble
those of #GtkStyle quite evidently, with some differences worth to point out:
</para>
<orderedlist>
<listitem>
All variations of <literal>draw_box()</literal>, <literal>draw_flat_box()</literal>,
<literal>draw_shadow()</literal>, <literal>draw_box_gap()</literal> and
<literal>draw_shadow_gap()</literal> become replaced by <literal>render_background()</literal>,
<literal>render_frame()</literal> and <literal>render_frame_gap()</literal>, where
the first would render frameless backgrounds and the last two would render all frame
variants.
</listitem>
<listitem>
<literal>draw_resize_grip()</literal> disappears in favor of
<literal>render_handle()</literal> with a #GTK_STYLE_CLASS_GRIP class set in the
style context.
</listitem>
<listitem>
<literal>draw_spinner()</literal> disappears in favor of <literal>render_activity()</literal>
with a #GTK_STYLE_CLASS_SPINNER class set in the style context.
</listitem>
</orderedlist>
<para>
The available list of render methods is:
</para>
<simplelist>
<member>gtk_render_background(): Renders a widget/area background.</member>
<member>
gtk_render_frame(): Renders a frame border around the given rectangle. Usually
the detail of the border depends on the theme information, plus the current widget
state.
</member>
<member>gtk_render_layout(): Renders a #PangoLayout</member>
<member>gtk_render_frame_gap(): Renders a frame border with a gap on one side.</member>
<member>
gtk_render_handle(): Renders all kind of handles and resize grips,
usually depending the rendering on the CSS class.
</member>
<member>
gtk_render_check() and gtk_render_option(): Respectively render checkboxes and
radiobuttons.
</member>
<member>
gtk_render_arrow(): Renders an arrow pointing to a direction
</member>
<member>
gtk_render_expander(): Renders an expander indicator, such as in #GtkExpander
</member>
<member>
gtk_render_focus(): Renders the indication that a widget has the keyboard focus
</member>
<member>
gtk_render_line(): Renders a line from one coordinate to another.
</member>
<member>
gtk_render_slider(): Renders a slider indicator, such as in #GtkScale
</member>
<member>
gtk_render_extension(): Renders and extension to an UI element, such as a
notebook tab.
</member>
<member>
gtk_render_activity(): Renders an area displaying activity, be it a progressbar
or a spinner.
</member>
<member>
gtk_render_icon_pixbuf(): Renders an icon into a #GdkPixbuf.
</member>
</simplelist>
<para>
One of the main differences to #GtkStyle engines is that the rendered widget is
totally isolated from the theme engine, all style information is meant to be
retrieved from the #GtkThemingEngine API, or from the #GtkWidgetPath obtained
from gtk_theming_engine_get_path(), which fully represents the rendered widget's
hierarchy from a styling point of view.
</para>
<para>
The detail string available in the old engines is now essentially replaced by
widget regions and CSS classes and widget regions. Regions are a way for
container/complex widgets to classify and add ordering hints to its children.
CSS classes identify are a way to label some content being rendered, both regions
and classes can be identified both in CSS files and theming engines. There are
several predefined classes and regions such as %GTK_STYLE_CLASS_BUTTON or
%GTK_STYLE_REGION_TAB in gtkstylecontext.h, although custom widgets may define
their own, which themes may attempt at handling.
</para>
</refsect2>
<refsect2 id="gtk-migrating-GtkStyleContext-parser-extensions">
<title>Extending the CSS parser</title>
<para>
If there is a need for extending the default CSS parser, #GtkRCStyle has been
replaced by gtk_theming_engine_register_property(), where the theming engine
may register new properties that map to a #GType, even if there is builtin
support for most basic types, it is possible to hook a custom parser for the
property.
</para>
<para>
The installed properties depend on the #GtkThemeEngine::name property, so they
should be added in the <literal>constructed()</literal> handler. For example,
if an engine with the name "Clearlooks" installs a "focus-color" property, the
property <literal>-Clearlooks-focus-color</literal> will be registered and
accepted in CSS.
</para>
<para>
Widget style properties also follow a similar syntax, with the widget type
name used as a prefix, so for example the #GtkWidget:focus-line-width style property
could be modified in CSS as <literal>-GtkWidget-focus-line-width</literal>.
</para>
</refsect2>
<refsect2 id="gtk-migrating-GtkStyleContext-css">
<title>Using the CSS file format</title>
<para>
The difference in syntax between the RC and CSS file formats is evident, it
actually seems shorter to highlight the similarities, although anyone familiar
with CSS3 should get an idea soon of the new format, to make a more or less
comprehensive example, the following RC data:
</para>
<example>
<title>Sample RC code</title>
<programlisting>
style "default" {
xthickness = 1
ythickness = 1
GtkButton::child-displacement-x = 1
GtkButton::child-displacement-y = 1
GtkCheckButton::indicator-size = 14
bg[NORMAL] = @bg_color
bg[PRELIGHT] = shade (1.02, @bg_color)
bg[SELECTED] = @selected_bg_color
bg[INSENSITIVE] = @bg_color
bg[ACTIVE] = shade (0.9, @bg_color)
fg[NORMAL] = @fg_color
fg[PRELIGHT] = @fg_color
fg[SELECTED] = @selected_fg_color
fg[INSENSITIVE] = darker (@bg_color)
fg[ACTIVE] = @fg_color
text[NORMAL] = @text_color
text[PRELIGHT] = @text_color
text[SELECTED] = @selected_fg_color
text[INSENSITIVE] = darker (@bg_color)
text[ACTIVE] = @selected_fg_color
base[NORMAL] = @base_color
base[PRELIGHT] = shade (0.95, @bg_color)
base[SELECTED] = @selected_bg_color
base[INSENSITIVE] = @bg_color
base[ACTIVE] = shade (0.9, @selected_bg_color)
engine "clearlooks" {
colorize_scrollbar = TRUE
style = CLASSIC
}
}
style "tooltips" {
xthickness = 4
ythickness = 4
bg[NORMAL] = @tooltip_bg_color
fg[NORMAL] = @tooltip_fg_color
}
style "button" {
xthickness = 3
ythickness = 3
bg[NORMAL] = shade (1.04, @bg_color)
bg[PRELIGHT] = shade (1.06, @bg_color)
bg[ACTIVE] = shade (0.85, @bg_color)
}
style "entry" {
xthickness = 3
ythickness = 3
bg[SELECTED] = mix (0.4, @selected_bg_color, @base_color)
fg[SELECTED] = @text_color
engine "clearlooks" {
focus_color = shade (0.65, @selected_bg_color)
}
}
style "other" {
bg[NORMAL] = &num;fff;
}
class "GtkWidget" style "default"
class "GtkEntry" style "entry"
widget_class "*&lt;GtkButton&gt;" style "button"
widget "gtk-tooltip*" style "tooltips"
widget_class "window-name.*.GtkButton" style "other"
</programlisting>
</example>
<para>
would roughly translate to this CSS:
</para>
<example>
<title>CSS translation</title>
<programlisting>
* {
padding: 1;
-GtkButton-child-displacement-x: 1;
-GtkButton-child-displacement-y: 1;
-GtkCheckButton-indicator-size: 14;
background-color: @bg_color;
color: @fg_color;
-Clearlooks-colorize-scrollbar: true;
-Clearlooks-style: classic;
}
*:hover {
background-color: shade (@bg_color, 1.02);
}
*:selected {
background-color: @selected_bg_color;
color: @selected_fg_color;
}
*:insensitive {
color: shade (@bg_color, 0.7);
}
*:active {
background-color: shade (@bg_color, 0.9);
}
.tooltip {
padding: 4;
background-color: @tooltip_bg_color;
color: @tooltip_fg_color;
}
.button {
padding: 3;
background-color: shade (@bg_color, 1.04);
}
.button:hover {
background-color: shade (@bg_color, 1.06);
}
.button:active {
background-color: shade (@bg_color, 0.85);
}
.entry {
padding: 3;
background-color: @base_color;
color: @text_color;
}
.entry:selected {
background-color: mix (@selected_bg_color, @base_color, 0.4);
-Clearlooks-focus-color: shade (0.65, @selected_bg_color)
}
/* The latter selector is an specification of the first,
since any widget may use the same classes or names */
&num;window-name .button,
GtkWindow&num;window-name GtkButton.button {
background-color: &num;fff;
}
</programlisting>
</example>
<para>
One notable difference is the reduction from fg/bg/text/base colors to only
foreground/background, in exchange the widget is able to render its various
elements with different CSS classes, so they would be themed independently.
</para>
<para>
It is worth mentioning that the new file format doesn't support custom
keybindings nor stock icon mappings as the RC format did.
</para>
</refsect2>
<refsect2 id="gtk-migrating-GtkStyleContext-checklist">
<title>A checklist for widgets</title>
<para>
When porting your widgets to use #GtkStyleContext, this is usually
the checklist to follow:
</para>
<orderedlist>
<listitem>
Replace <literal>style_set()</literal> calls with <literal>style_updated()</literal>.
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
Try to identify the role of what you're rendering with any number of classes, this will
replace the detail string, there is a predefined set of CSS classes. Note that complex
widgets will probably need rendering different elements with different applying CSS
classes in order to have them styled separatedly. This could result in code like
(simplified examples):
</para>
<example>
<title>Setting a permanent CSS class</title>
<programlisting>
static void
gtk_button_init (GtkButton *button)
{
GtkStyleContext *context;
...
context = gtk_widget_get_style_context (GTK_WIDGET (button));
/* Set the "button" class */
gtk_style_context_add_class (context, GTK_STYLE_CLASS_BUTTON);
}
</programlisting>
</example>
<para>
Or
</para>
<example>
<title>Using dynamic CSS classes for different elements</title>
<programlisting>
static gboolean
gtk_spin_button_draw (GtkSpinButton *spin,
cairo_t *cr)
{
GtkStyleContext *context;
...
context = gtk_widget_get_style_context (GTK_WIDGET (spin));
gtk_style_context_save (context);
gtk_style_context_add_class (context, GTK_STYLE_CLASS_ENTRY);
/* Call to entry draw impl with "entry" class */
parent_class->draw (spin, cr);
gtk_style_context_restore (context);
gtk_style_context_save (context);
/* Render up/down buttons with the "button" class */
gtk_style_context_add_class (context, GTK_STYLE_CLASS_BUTTON);
draw_up_button (spin, cr);
draw_down_button (spin, cr);
gtk_style_context_restore (context);
...
}
</programlisting>
</example>
<para>
Note that #GtkStyleContext only provides fg/bg colors, so text/base is done through
distinctive theming of the different classes. For example, An entry would usually
be black on white while a button would usually be black on light grey.
</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
Replace all <literal>gtk_paint_*()</literal> calls to use <literal>gtk_render_*()</literal>,
the most distinctive changes are the use of #GtkStateFlags to represent the widget state and
the lack of #GtkShadowType. For gtk_render_check() and gtk_render_option(), the
<literal>shadow_type</literal> parameter is replaced by the #GTK_STATE_FLAG_ACTIVE and
#GTK_STATE_FLAG_INCONSISTENT state flags. For things such as pressed/unpressed button states,
#GTK_STATE_FLAG_ACTIVE is used, so the CSS may style normal/active states differently to render
outset/inset borders respectively.
</listitem>
<listitem>
Replace all uses of xthickness/ythickness, #GtkStyleContext uses the CSS box model, so
there is the border-width/padding/margin properties to replace the different applications
of X and Y thickness. Note that all of this is merely a guideline to use, which widgets
may choose to obey or not.
</listitem>
</orderedlist>
</refsect2>
<refsect2 id="gtk-migrating-GtkStyleContext-parsing">
<title>Parsing from custom resources</title>
<para>
As a consequence of the RC format going away, calling gtk_rc_parse() or gtk_rc_parse_string()
won't be doing anything to the widget styling, the way to replace these calls is using the CSS
format, which is loaded through a #GtkCssProvider, and inserted as a style resource to an
individual widget through gtk_style_context_add_provider() or to all widgets in a screen through
gtk_style_context_add_provider_for_screen().
</para>
<para>
Notice that you can also get style information from custom resources by implementing a
#GtkStyleProvider, where it would be translated to something the widget understands. Although
this is an advanced feature that should be rarely used.
</para>
</refsect2>
<refsect2 id="gtk-migrating-GtkStyleContext-bonus-points">
<title>Bonus points</title>
<para>
There are some features in #GtkStyleContext that weren't available in
#GtkStyle, or were made available over time for certain widgets through
extending the detail string in obscure ways. UI elements being rendered
may be provided now a lot more information, so going through this list
you'll ensure your widget is the perfect citizen in a fully themable UI
</para>
<orderedlist>
<listitem>
If your widget renders a series of similar elements, such as tabs
in a #GtkNotebook or rows/column in a #GtkTreeView, consider adding
regions through gtk_style_context_add_region(), these regions can be
referenced in CSS and the :nth-child pseudoclass may be used to match
the elements depending on the flags passed.
<example>
<title>Theming widget regions</title>
<programlisting>
GtkNotebook tab {
background-color: &num;f3329d;
}
GtkTreeView row::nth-child (even) {
background-color: &num;dddddd;
}
</programlisting>
</example>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
If your container renders child widgets within different regions, make it implement
<literal>GtkContainer::get_path_for_child()</literal>, This function lets containers
assign special #GtkWidgetPath<!-- -->s to child widgets depending on its role/region,
this is necessary to extend the concept above throughout the widget hierarchy.
</para>
<para>
For example, a #GtkNotebook would modify the tab labels' #GtkWidgetPath so the
"tab" region is added, doing this so would allow the tab label to be themed through:
</para>
<example>
<title>Theming a widget within a parent container region</title>
<programlisting>
GtkNotebook tab GtkLabel {
font: Sans 8;
}
</programlisting>
</example>
</listitem>
<listitem>
If you intend several visual elements to look interconnected, make sure you specify
rendered elements' connection areas through gtk_style_context_set_junction_sides()
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>
#GtkStyleContext supports implicit animations on state changes for the most simple
cases, widgets with one single animatable area, which are changed state through
gtk_widget_set_state_flags() or gtk_widget_unset_state_flags(). These functions
trigger the animations for the affected state flags.
</para>
<para>
If your widget consists of more than a simple area (such as buttons or entries),
and these different areas may be rendered with different states, make sure to
mark the rendered areas through gtk_style_context_push_animatable_region() and
gtk_style_context_pop_animatable_region().
</para>
<para>
gtk_style_context_notify_state_change() may be used to trigger a transition for
a given state, the region ID will determine the animatable region that becomes
affected by this transition.
</para>
</listitem>
</orderedlist>
</refsect2>
</chapter>
\ No newline at end of file
Markdown is supported
0% or
You are about to add 0 people to the discussion. Proceed with caution.
Finish editing this message first!
Please register or to comment