Commit e6abb470 authored by Owen Taylor's avatar Owen Taylor Committed by Owen Taylor

Add beginnings of file with detailed information about the structure and

Fri May  5 12:16:32 2000  Owen Taylor  <otaylor@redhat.com>

	* gdk-pixbuf/pixops/DETAILS: Add beginnings of file with
	detailed information about the structure and algorithms
	of pixops so people can fix it instead of breaking it.

CvS: Added Files:
parent 0f038c9e
Fri May 5 12:16:32 2000 Owen Taylor <otaylor@redhat.com>
* gdk-pixbuf/pixops/DETAILS: Add beginnings of file with
detailed information about the structure and algorithms
of pixops so people can fix it instead of breaking it.
2000-05-04 Darin Adler <darin@eazel.com> 2000-05-04 Darin Adler <darin@eazel.com>
* gdk-pixbuf/pixops/pixops.c: (pixops_composite_nearest), * gdk-pixbuf/pixops/pixops.c: (pixops_composite_nearest),
......
General ideas of Pixops
=======================
- Gain speed by special-casing the common case, and using
generic code to handle the uncommon case.
- Most of the time in scaling an image is in the center;
however code that can handle edges properly is slow
because it needs to deal with the possibility of running
off the edge. So make the fast case code only handle
the centers, and use generic, slow, code for the edges,
Structure of Pixops
===================
The code of pixops can roughly be grouped into four parts:
- Filter computation functions
- Functions for scaling or compositing lines and pixels
using precomputed filters
- pixops process, the central driver that iterates through
the image calling pixel or line functions as necessary
- Wrapper functions (pixops_scale/composite/composite_color)
that compute the filter, chooses the line and pixel functions
and then call pixops_processs with the filter, line,
and pixel functions.
pixops process is a pretty scary looking function:
static void
pixops_process (guchar *dest_buf,
int render_x0,
int render_y0,
int render_x1,
int render_y1,
int dest_rowstride,
int dest_channels,
gboolean dest_has_alpha,
const guchar *src_buf,
int src_width,
int src_height,
int src_rowstride,
int src_channels,
gboolean src_has_alpha,
double scale_x,
double scale_y,
int check_x,
int check_y,
int check_size,
guint32 color1,
guint32 color2,
PixopsFilter *filter,
PixopsLineFunc line_func,
PixopsPixelFunc pixel_func)
(Some of the arguments should be moved into structures. It's basically
"all the arguments to pixops_composite_color plus three more") The
arguments can be divided up into:
Information about the destination buffer
guchar *dest_buf, int dest_rowstride, int dest_channels, gboolean dest_has_alpha,
Information about the source buffer
guchar *src_buf, int src_rowstride, int src_channels, gboolean src_has_alpha,
int src_width, int src_height,
Information on how to scale the source buf and the region of the scaled source
to render onto the destination buffer
int render_x0, int render_y0, int render_x1, int render_y1
double scale_x, double scale_y
Information about a constant color or check pattern onto which to to composite
int check_x, int check_y, int check_size, guint32 color1, guint32 color2
Information precomputed to use during the scale operation
PixopsFilter *filter, PixopsLineFunc line_func, OixopsPixelFunc pixel_func
Filter computation
==================
The PixopsFilter structure looks like:
struct _PixopsFilter
{
int *weights;
int n_x;
int n_y;
double x_offset;
double y_offset;
};
'weights' is an array of size:
weights[SUBSAMPLE][SUBSAMPLE][n_x][n_y]
SUBSAMPLE is a constant - currently 16 in pixops.c.
In order to compute a scaled destination pixel we convolve
an array of n_x by n_y source pixels with one of
the SUBSAMPLE * SUBSAMPLE filter matrices stored
in weights. The choice of filter matrix is determined
by the fractional part of the source location.
To compute dest[i,j] we do the following:
x = i * scale_x + x_offset;
y = i * scale_x + y_offset;
x_int = floor(x)
y_int = floor(y)
C = weights[SUBSAMPLE*(x - x_int)][SUBSAMPLE*(y - y_int)]
total = sum[l=0..n_x-1, j=0..n_y-1] (C[l,m] * src[x_int + l, x_int + m])
The filter weights are integers scaled so that the total of the
weights in the weights array is equal to 65536.
When the source does not have alpha, we simply compute each channel
as above, so total is in the range [0,255*65536]
dest = src / 65536
When the source does have alpha, then we need to compute using
"pre-multiplied alpha":
a_total = sum (C[l,m] * src_a[x_int + l, x_int + m])
c_total = sum (C[l,m] * src_a[x_int + l, x_int + m] * src_c[x_int + l, x_int + m])
This gives us a result for c_total in the range of [0,255*a_total]
c_dest = c_total / a_total
Mathematical aside:
The process of producing a destination filter consists
of:
- Producing a continuous approximation to the source
image via interpolation.
- Sampling that continuous approximation with filter.
This is representable as:
S(x,y) = sum[i=-inf,inf; j=-inf,inf] A(frac(x),frac(y))[i,j] * S[floor(x)+i,floor(y)+j]
D[i,j] = Integral(s=-inf,inf; t=-inf,inf) B(i+x,j+y) S((i+x)/scale_x,(i+y)/scale_y)
By reordering the sums and integrals, you get something of the form:
D[i,j] = sum[l=-inf,inf; m=-inf;inf] C[l,m] S[i+l,j+l]
The arrays in weights are the C[l,m] above, and are thus
determined by the interpolating algorithm in use and the
sampling filter:
INTERPOLATE SAMPLE
ART_FILTER_NEAREST nearest neighbour point
ART_FILTER_TILES nearest neighbour box
ART_FILTER_BILINEAR (scale < 1) nearest neighbour box (scale < 1)
ART_FILTER_BILINEAR (scale > 1) bilinear point (scale > 1)
ART_FILTER_HYPER bilinear box
Pixel Functions
===============
typedef void (*PixopsPixelFunc) (guchar *dest, int dest_x, int dest_channels, int dest_has_alpha,
int src_has_alpha,
int check_size, guint32 color1, guint32 color2,
int r, int g, int b, int a);
The arguments here are:
dest: location to store the output pixel
dest_x: x coordinate of destination (for handling checks)
dest_has_alpha, dest_channels: Information about the destination pixbuf
src_has_alpha: Information about the source pixbuf
check_size, color1, color2: Information for color background for composite_color variant
r,g,b,a - scaled red, green, blue and alpha
r,g,b are premultiplied alpha.
a is in [0,65536*255]
r is in [0,255*a]
g is in [0,255*a]
b is in [0,255*a]
If src_has_alpha is false, then a will be 65536*255, allowing optimization.
Line functions
==============
typedef guchar *(*PixopsLineFunc) (int *weights, int n_x, int n_y,
guchar *dest, int dest_x, guchar *dest_end, int dest_channels, int dest_has_alpha,
guchar **src, int src_channels, gboolean src_has_alpha,
int x_init, int x_step, int src_width,
int check_size, guint32 color1, guint32 color2);
The argumets are:
weights, n_x, n_y
Filter weights for this row - dimensions weights[SUBSAMPLE][n_x][n_y]
dest, dest_x, dest_end, dest_channels, dest_has_alpha
The destination buffer, function will start writing into *dest and
increment by dest_channels, until dest == dest_end. Reading from
src for these pixels is guaranteed not to go outside of the
bufer bounds
src, src_channels, src_has_alpha
src[n_y] - an array of pointers to the start of the source rows
for each filter coordinate.
x_init, x_step
Information about x positions in source image.
src_width - unused
check_size, color1, color2: Information for color background for composite_color variant
The total for the destination pixel at dest + i is given by
SUM (l=0..n_x - 1, m=0..n_y - 1)
src[m][(x_init + i * x_step)>> SCALE_SHIFT + l] * weights[m][l]
Algorithms for compositing
==========================
Compositing alpha on non alpha:
R = As * Rs + (1 - As) * Rd
G = As * Gs + (1 - As) * Gd
B = As * Bs + (1 - As) * Bd
This can be regrouped as:
Cd + Cs * (Cs - Rd)
Compositing alpha on alpha:
A = As + (1 - As) * Ad
R = (As * Rs + (1 - As) * Rd * Ad) / A
G = (As * Gs + (1 - As) * Gd * Ad) / A
B = (As * Bs + (1 - As) * Bd * Ad) / A
The way to think of this is in terms of the "area":
The final pixel is composed of area As of the source pixel
and (1 - As) * Ad of the target pixel. So the final pixel
is a weighted average with those weights.
Note that the weights do not add up to one - hence the
non-constant division.
Integer tricks for compositing
==============================
MMX Code
========
Line functions are provided in MMX functionsfor a few special
cases:
n_x = n_y = 2
src_channels = 3 dest_channels = 3 op = scale
src_channels = 4 with alpha dest_channels = 4 no alpha op = composite
src_channels = 4 with alpha dest_channels = 4 no alpha op = composite_color
For the case n_x = n_y = 2 - primarily hit when scaling up with bilinear
scaling, we can take advantage of the fact that multiple destination
pixels will be composed from the same source pixels.
That is a destination pixel is a linear combination of the source
pixels around it:
S0 S1
D D' D'' ...
S2 S3
Each mmx register is 64 bits wide, so we can unpack a source pixel
into the low 8 bits of 4 16 bit words, and store it into a mmx
register.
For each destination pixel, we first make sure that we have pixels S0
... S3 loaded into registers mm0 ...mm3. (This will often involve not
doing anything or moving mm1 and mm3 into mm0 and mm1 then reloading
mm1 and mm3 with new values).
Then we load up the appropriate weights for the 4 corner pixels
based on the offsets of the destination pixel within the source
pixels.
We have preexpanded the weights to 64 bits wide and truncated the
range to 8 bits, so an original filter value of
0x5321 would be expanded to
0x0053005300530053
For source buffers without alpha, we simply do a multiply-add
of the weights, giving us a 16 bit quantity for the result
that we shift left by 8 and store in the destination buffer.
When the source buffer has alpha, then things become more
complicated - when we load up mm0 and mm3, we premultiply
the alpha, so they contain:
(a*ff >> 8) (r*a >> 8) (g*a >> 8) (b*a >> a)
Then when we multiply by the weights, and add we end up
with premultiplied r,g,b,a in the range of 0 .. 0xff * 0ff,
call them A,R,G,B
We then need to composite with the dest pixels - which
we do by:
r_dest = (R + ((0xff * 0xff - A) >> 8) * r_dest) >> 8
(0xff * 0xff)
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