gtkbuilder.sgml 13 KB
Newer Older
Johan Dahlin's avatar
Johan Dahlin committed
1 2 3 4
<!-- ##### SECTION Title ##### -->
GtkBuilder

<!-- ##### SECTION Short_Description ##### -->
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
5
Build an interface from an XML UI definition
Johan Dahlin's avatar
Johan Dahlin committed
6 7 8

<!-- ##### SECTION Long_Description ##### -->
<para>
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
9
A GtkBuilder is an auxiliary object that reads textual descriptions
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
10 11 12 13
of a user interface and instantiates the described objects. To pass a 
description to a GtkBuilder, call gtk_builder_add_from_file() or 
gtk_builder_add_from_string(). These functions can be called multiple
times; the builder merges the content of all descriptions. 
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
14 15 16
</para>
<para>
A GtkBuilder holds a reference to all objects that it has constructed
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
and drops these references when it is finalized. This finalization can 
cause the destruction of non-widget objects or widgets which are not 
contained in a toplevel window. For toplevel windows constructed by a 
builder, it is the responsibility of the user to call gtk_widget_destroy() 
to get rid of them and all the widgets they contain.
</para>
<para>
The functions gtk_builder_get_object() and gtk_builder_get_objects()
can be used to access the widgets in the interface by the names assigned 
to them inside the UI description. Toplevel windows returned by these
functions will stay around until the user explicitly destroys them
with gtk_widget_destroy(). Other widgets will either be part of a 
larger hierarchy constructed by the builder (in which case you should
not have to worry about their lifecycle), or without a parent, in which 
case they have to be added to some container to make use of them.  
Non-widget objects need to be reffed with g_object_ref() to keep them
beyond the lifespan of the builder.
</para>
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
35
<para>
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
36 37
The function gtk_builder_connect_signals() and variants thereof can be 
used to connect handlers to the named signals in the description. 
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
38
</para>
Johan Dahlin's avatar
Johan Dahlin committed
39

Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
40 41 42 43
<refsect2 id="BUILDER-UI"><title>GtkBuilder UI Definitions</title>
<para>
GtkBuilder parses textual descriptions of user interfaces which 
are specified in an XML format which can be roughly described 
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
44 45 46
by the DTD below. We refer to these descriptions as 
<firstterm>GtkBuilder UI definitions</firstterm> or just
<firstterm>UI definitions</firstterm> if the context is clear.
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
47 48 49
Do not confuse GtkBuilder UI Definitions with 
<link linkend="XML-UI">GtkUIManager UI Definitions</link>, 
which are more limited in scope. 
Johan Dahlin's avatar
Johan Dahlin committed
50
</para>
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
51 52
<para>
<programlisting><![CDATA[
53
<!ELEMENT interface (requires|object)* >
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
54 55 56
<!ELEMENT object    (property|signal|child|ANY)* >
<!ELEMENT property  PCDATA >
<!ELEMENT signal    EMPTY >
57
<!ELEMENT requires  EMPTY >
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
58
<!ELEMENT child     (object|ANY*) >
Johan Dahlin's avatar
Johan Dahlin committed
59

60 61
<!ATTLIST interface  domain         	    #IMPLIED >
<!ATTLIST object     id             	    #REQUIRED
62
                     class          	    #REQUIRED
63 64
                     type-func      	    #IMPLIED
                     constructor    	    #IMPLIED >
65 66
<!ATTLIST requires   lib             	    #REQUIRED
                     version          	    #REQUIRED >
67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78
<!ATTLIST property   name           	    #REQUIRED
                     translatable   	    #IMPLIED 
                     comments               #IMPLIED
                     context                #IMPLIED >
<!ATTLIST signal     name           	    #REQUIRED
                     handler        	    #REQUIRED
                     after          	    #IMPLIED
                     swapped        	    #IMPLIED
                     object         	    #IMPLIED
                     last_modification_time #IMPLIED >
<!ATTLIST child      type           	    #IMPLIED
                     internal-child 	    #IMPLIED >
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
79 80
]]></programlisting>
</para>
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
81 82
<para>
The toplevel element is &lt;interface&gt;.
Johan Dahlin's avatar
Updates  
Johan Dahlin committed
83 84 85 86
It optionally takes a "domain" attribute, which will make
the builder look for translated strings using dgettext() in the
domain specified. This can also be done by calling
gtk_builder_set_translation_domain() on the builder.
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
87 88 89 90 91 92 93
Objects are described by &lt;object&gt; elements, which can
contain &lt;property&gt; elements to set properties, &lt;signal&gt;
elements which connect signals to handlers, and &lt;child&gt;
elements, which describe child objects (most often widgets
inside a container, but also e.g. actions in an action group,
or columns in a tree model). A &lt;child&gt; element contains
an &lt;object&gt; element which describes the child object.
94 95 96 97 98
The target toolkit version(s) are described by &lt;requires&gt;
elements, the "lib" attribute specifies the widget library in
question (currently the only supported value is "gtk+") and the "version" 
attribute specifies the target version in the form "&lt;major&gt;.&lt;minor&gt;".
The builder will error out if the version requirements are not met.
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113
</para>
<para>
Typically, the specific kind of object represented by an
&lt;object&gt; element is specified by the "class" attribute.
If the type has not been loaded yet, GTK+ tries to find the
<function>_get_type()</function> from the class name by applying 
heuristics. This works in most cases, but if necessary, it is
possible to specify the name of the <function>_get_type()</function> 
explictly with the "type-func" attribute. As a special case, 
GtkBuilder allows to use an object that has been constructed
by a #GtkUIManager in another part of the UI definition by
specifying the id of the #GtkUIManager in the "constructor"
attribute and the name of the object in the "id" attribute.
</para>
<para>
Johan Dahlin's avatar
Updates  
Johan Dahlin committed
114
Objects must be given a name with the "id" attribute, which 
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124
allows the application to retrieve them from the builder with 
gtk_builder_get_object(). An id is also necessary to use the 
object as property value in other parts of the UI definition.
</para>
<para>
Setting properties of objects is pretty straightforward with
the &lt;property&gt; element: the "name" attribute specifies
the name of the property, and the content of the element 
specifies the value. If the "translatable" attribute is 
set to a true value, GTK+ uses gettext() (or dgettext() if
Johan Dahlin's avatar
Updates  
Johan Dahlin committed
125
the builder has a translation domain set) to find a translation 
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
126 127
for the value. This happens before the value is parsed, so
it can be used for properties of any type, but it is probably
128 129 130
most useful for string properties. It is also possible to
specify a context to disambiguate short strings, and comments
which may help the translators.
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
131 132 133 134 135 136 137
</para>
<para>
GtkBuilder can parse textual representations for the most
common property types: characters, strings, integers, floating-point
numbers, booleans (strings like "TRUE", "t", "yes", "y", "1" are
interpreted as %TRUE, strings like "FALSE, "f", "no", "n", "0" are
interpreted as %FALSE), enumerations (can be specified by their 
Johan Dahlin's avatar
Updates  
Johan Dahlin committed
138 139 140 141
name, nick or integer value), flags (can be specified by their name, 
nick, integer value, optionally combined with "|", e.g. 
"GTK_VISIBLE|GTK_REALIZED")  and colors (in a format understood by 
gdk_color_parse()). Objects can be referred to by their name. 
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
142
Pixbufs can be specified as a filename of an image file to load.
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Updates  
Matthias Clasen committed
143 144 145 146
In general, GtkBuilder allows forward references to objects &mdash; 
an object doesn't have to constructed before it can be referred to.
The exception to this rule is that an object has to be constructed
before it can be used as the value of a construct-only property. 
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156
</para>
<para>
Signal handlers are set up with the &lt;signal&gt; element.
The "name" attribute specifies the name of the signal, and the
"handler" attribute specifies the function to connect to the signal.
By default, GTK+ tries to find the handler using g_module_symbol(),
but this can be changed by passing a custom #GtkBuilderConnectFunc
to gtk_builder_connect_signals_full(). The remaining attributes,
"after", "swapped" and "object", have the same meaning as the 
corresponding parameters of the g_signal_connect_object() or
157 158
g_signal_connect_data() functions. A "last_modification_time" attribute
is also allowed, but it does not have a meaning to the builder.
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168
</para>
<para>
Sometimes it is necessary to refer to widgets which have implicitly
been constructed by GTK+ as part of a composite widget, to set 
properties on them or to add further children (e.g. the @vbox 
of a #GtkDialog). This can be achieved by setting the "internal-child"
propery of the &lt;child&gt; element to a true value. Note that
GtkBuilder still requires an &lt;object&gt; element for the internal
child, even if it has already been constructed.
</para>
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
169 170 171 172 173 174 175
<para>
A number of widgets have different places where a child can be 
added (e.g. tabs vs. page content in notebooks). This can be reflected
in a UI definition by specifying the "type" attribute on a &lt;child&gt;
The possible values for the "type" attribute are described in 
the sections describing the widget-specific portions of UI definitions.
</para>
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
176 177 178 179 180 181
<example>
<title>A GtkBuilder UI Definition</title>
<programlisting><![CDATA[
<interface>
  <object class="GtkDialog" id="dialog1">
    <child internal-child="vbox">
Johan Dahlin's avatar
Updates  
Johan Dahlin committed
182
      <object class="GtkVBox" id="vbox1">
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
183 184
        <property name="border-width">10</property>
        <child internal-child="action_area">
Johan Dahlin's avatar
Updates  
Johan Dahlin committed
185
          <object class="GtkHButtonBox" id="hbuttonbox1">
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
186
            <property name="border-width">20</property>
Johan Dahlin's avatar
Updates  
Johan Dahlin committed
187 188 189
            <child>
              <object class="GtkButton" id="ok_button">
                <property name="label">gtk-ok</property>
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201
                <property name="use-stock">TRUE</property>
                <signal name="clicked" handler="ok_button_clicked"/>
              </object>
            </child>
          </object>
        </child>
      </object>
    </child>
  </object>
</interface>
]]></programlisting>
</example>
Johan Dahlin's avatar
Johan Dahlin committed
202
<para>
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
203
Beyond this general structure, several object classes define
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
204
their own XML DTD fragments for filling in the ANY placeholders
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212
in the DTD above. Note that a custom element in a &lt;child&gt;
element gets parsed by the custom tag handler of the parent
object, while a custom element in an &lt;object&gt; element
gets parsed by the custom tag handler of the object. 
</para>
<para>
These XML fragments are explained in the documentation of the
respective objects, see 
213
<link linkend="GtkWidget-BUILDER-UI">GtkWidget</link>,
214
<link linkend="GtkLabel-BUILDER-UI">GtkLabel</link>,
215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229
<link linkend="GtkContainer-BUILDER-UI">GtkContainer</link>,
<link linkend="GtkDialog-BUILDER-UI">GtkDialog</link>,
<link linkend="GtkCellLayout-BUILDER-UI">GtkCellLayout</link>,
<link linkend="GtkColorSelectionDialog-BUILDER-UI">GtkColorSelectionDialog</link>,
<link linkend="GtkFontSelectionDialog-BUILDER-UI">GtkFontSelectionDialog</link>,
<link linkend="GtkComboBoxEntry-BUILDER-UI">GtkComboBoxEntry</link>,
<link linkend="GtkExpander-BUILDER-UI">GtkExpander</link>,
<link linkend="GtkFrame-BUILDER-UI">GtkFrame</link>,
<link linkend="GtkListStore-BUILDER-UI">GtkListStore</link>,
<link linkend="GtkTreeStore-BUILDER-UI">GtkTreeStore</link>,
<link linkend="GtkNotebook-BUILDER-UI">GtkNotebook</link>,
<link linkend="GtkSizeGroup-BUILDER-UI">GtkSizeGroup</link>,
<link linkend="GtkTreeView-BUILDER-UI">GtkTreeView</link>,
<link linkend="GtkUIManager-BUILDER-UI">GtkUIManager</link>,
<link linkend="GtkActionGroup-BUILDER-UI">GtkActionGroup</link>.
Johan Dahlin's avatar
Johan Dahlin committed
230
</para>
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
231 232 233 234
</refsect2>

<!-- ##### SECTION See_Also ##### -->

Johan Dahlin's avatar
Johan Dahlin committed
235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263

<!-- ##### SECTION Stability_Level ##### -->


<!-- ##### STRUCT GtkBuilder ##### -->
<para>

</para>


<!-- ##### ARG GtkBuilder:translation-domain ##### -->
<para>

</para>

<!-- ##### USER_FUNCTION GtkBuilderConnectFunc ##### -->
<para>

</para>

@builder: 
@object: 
@signal_name: 
@handler_name: 
@connect_object: 
@flags: 
@user_data: 


Matthias Clasen's avatar
2.11.6  
Matthias Clasen committed
264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275
<!-- ##### ENUM GtkBuilderError ##### -->
<para>

</para>

@GTK_BUILDER_ERROR_INVALID_TYPE_FUNCTION: 
@GTK_BUILDER_ERROR_UNHANDLED_TAG: 
@GTK_BUILDER_ERROR_MISSING_ATTRIBUTE: 
@GTK_BUILDER_ERROR_INVALID_ATTRIBUTE: 
@GTK_BUILDER_ERROR_INVALID_TAG: 
@GTK_BUILDER_ERROR_MISSING_PROPERTY_VALUE: 
@GTK_BUILDER_ERROR_INVALID_VALUE: 
Matthias Clasen's avatar
2.13.3  
Matthias Clasen committed
276
@GTK_BUILDER_ERROR_VERSION_MISMATCH: 
Matthias Clasen's avatar
2.11.6  
Matthias Clasen committed
277

Johan Dahlin's avatar
Johan Dahlin committed
278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370
<!-- ##### FUNCTION gtk_builder_new ##### -->
<para>

</para>

@Returns: 


<!-- ##### FUNCTION gtk_builder_add_from_file ##### -->
<para>

</para>

@builder: 
@filename: 
@error: 
@Returns: 


<!-- ##### FUNCTION gtk_builder_add_from_string ##### -->
<para>

</para>

@builder: 
@buffer: 
@length: 
@error: 
@Returns: 


<!-- ##### FUNCTION gtk_builder_get_object ##### -->
<para>

</para>

@builder: 
@name: 
@Returns: 


<!-- ##### FUNCTION gtk_builder_get_objects ##### -->
<para>

</para>

@builder: 
@Returns: 


<!-- ##### FUNCTION gtk_builder_connect_signals ##### -->
<para>

</para>

@builder: 
@user_data: 


<!-- ##### FUNCTION gtk_builder_connect_signals_full ##### -->
<para>

</para>

@builder: 
@func: 
@user_data: 


<!-- ##### FUNCTION gtk_builder_set_translation_domain ##### -->
<para>

</para>

@builder: 
@domain: 


<!-- ##### FUNCTION gtk_builder_get_translation_domain ##### -->
<para>

</para>

@builder: 
@Returns: 


<!-- ##### FUNCTION gtk_builder_get_type_from_name ##### -->
<para>

</para>

@builder: 
Matthias Clasen's avatar
2.11.4  
Matthias Clasen committed
371
@type_name: 
Johan Dahlin's avatar
Johan Dahlin committed
372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379
@Returns: 


<!-- ##### FUNCTION gtk_builder_value_from_string ##### -->
<para>

</para>

Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
380
@builder: 
Johan Dahlin's avatar
Johan Dahlin committed
381 382 383
@pspec: 
@string: 
@value: 
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
384
@error: 
Johan Dahlin's avatar
Johan Dahlin committed
385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392
@Returns: 


<!-- ##### FUNCTION gtk_builder_value_from_string_type ##### -->
<para>

</para>

Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
393
@builder: 
Johan Dahlin's avatar
Johan Dahlin committed
394 395 396
@type: 
@string: 
@value: 
Matthias Clasen's avatar
Matthias Clasen committed
397
@error: 
Johan Dahlin's avatar
Johan Dahlin committed
398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409
@Returns: 


<!-- ##### MACRO GTK_BUILDER_WARN_INVALID_CHILD_TYPE ##### -->
<para>

</para>

@object: 
@type: 


Matthias Clasen's avatar
2.11.3  
Matthias Clasen committed
410 411 412 413 414 415 416
<!-- ##### MACRO GTK_BUILDER_ERROR ##### -->
<para>

</para>