Commit 602c36b2 authored by Kevin Breit's avatar Kevin Breit Committed by Kevin Breit
Browse files

Added, made XML compatible

2002-01-26  Kevin Breit  <mrproper@ximian.com>

	* formulas.sgml: Added, made XML compatible

	* new/editing.xml: XMLized and added to CVS

	* new/gnumeric.xml: Enabled the editing section
	Enabled formulas
parent 368aa730
2002-01-26 Kevin Breit <mrproper@ximian.com>
* formulas.sgml: Added, made XML compatible
* new/editing.xml: XMLized and added to CVS
* new/gnumeric.xml: Enabled the editing section
Enabled formulas
* new/worksheet.xml: This file builds properly now
2002-01-25 Kevin Breit <mrproper@ximian.com>
......
2002-01-26 Kevin Breit <mrproper@ximian.com>
* formulas.sgml: Added, made XML compatible
* new/editing.xml: XMLized and added to CVS
* new/gnumeric.xml: Enabled the editing section
Enabled formulas
* new/worksheet.xml: This file builds properly now
2002-01-25 Kevin Breit <mrproper@ximian.com>
......
<sect1 id="strings-and-numbers">
<title>Strings and numbers</title>
<para>
There are four basic types of data that can be entered into cells.
They are:
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term>Strings</term>
<listitem>
<para>
A string is any set of letters, or of letters and
numbers. The only limitations are that strings cannot
contain newlines, and they may not begin with the equals
or at symbols (= and @). See <xref
linkend="stringnumber" /> for an example of entering a
string.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term>Numbers</term>
<listitem>
<para>
Numbers can be formatted as money, ($10.00), dates (11
Nov. 2002), or scientific notation (2.3e12). If you want
a number to be displayed as a plain string without any
number formatting, you can put a single quote (') before
it.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term>Formulas</term>
<listitem>
<para>Formulas are ways of describing a calculation you
want Gnumeric to make automatically. Formulas always begin
with a special character, which is usually the equals sign
(=). You may also use the at symbol (@) or the plus or
minus symbols (+ or -).
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term>Cell References</term>
<listitem>
<para>
A cell reference is the part of a formula which refers to
another cell. For example, in the formula to add two cells
=(A4+A1), both A4 and A1 are cell references.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
</para>
<figure id="stringnumber">
<title>Entering strings and numbers.</title>
<mediaobject>
<imageobject>
<imagedata fileref="figures/editing-1.png" format="PNG" />
</imageobject>
</mediaobject>
</figure>
<sect2 id="entering-dates-and-numbers">
<title>Dates and Numbers</title>
<para>
When you begin entering a number,
<application>Gnumeric</application> will attempt to match the data
you enter with existing formats for numbered data. If it matches a
data format, <application>Gnumeric</application> will
automatically convert the entered data into the appropriate serial
number, displaying it in an appropriate format.
</para>
<para>
Because of the format matching ability, user-entered data can be
autofilled (see <xref linkend="autofill" /> for more information)
properly. </para>
<para>See <xref linkend="number-format-date-examples" /> for some examples of
the many date and time formats that are accepted by
<application>Gnumeric</application>. </para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="editing-of-cells">
<title>Editing of cells.</title>
<procedure>
<title>Entering data in a cell</title>
<step>
<para>Select the cell where you want to enter data by clicking
on it with the white cross cursor.
</para></step>
<step>
<para>Type in the data or formula.</para></step>
<step>
<para>Press Enter.</para></step>
</procedure>
<para>
See <xref linkend="formulas" /> for more detail on entering formulas into cells.
</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="editing-commands">
<title>Editing commands</title>
<para>After selecting the cell and initially entering the data, the user is in
a limited editing mode, designed to aid in entering data which may contain
cell references. The main keys for editing mistakes in this mode is the backspace
key.</para>
<sect3 id="advanced-editing-mode">
<title>Advanced Editing mode</title>
<para>For a more complete set of editing options, especially for
longer entries, there is an advanced editing mode. To enter
the advanced editing mode, press <keycap>F2</keycap>. The
keyboard focus will then shift from the current cell to the
editing region at the top of the worksheet. There, you can use
cursor keys to position the cursor within the data in the
cell, and have all of the capabilities of the data entry area
available.
</para>
<para>
For example, you can use:
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term><keycap>Backspace</keycap></term>
<listitem><para>Delete the character to the left of the cursor.</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><keycap>Cursor keys</keycap></term>
<listitem><para>Move the cursor appropriately.</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
<term><keycap>Ctrl+K</keycap></term>
<listitem><para>Delete to the end of the line</para></listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
See <xref linkend="data-entry" /> For more info on
the data entry area.</para>
<tip>
<title>TIP</title> <para>All the normal key bindings for Gnome
application entry boxes also apply in the data entry
box.</para>
</tip>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="error-message">
<title>Error Messages</title>
<para>If a formula or set of data is not acceptable, Gnumeric
will display an error message in the cell.</para>
</sect3>
</sect2>
</sect1>
<!-- include the files for formulas and for cell referencing -->
&formulas;
&cellrefer;
<sect1 id="selecting-cells-entering-formulas">
<title>Selecting Cells While Entering Formulas.</title>
<para>When entering a formula into a cell, you can use the mouse and
the keyboard cursor keys enter data more quickly.</para>
<para>There are several ways to enter a cell range into a formula. Cell
ranges and references can be entered into a formula simply by typing in
the proper syntax (see <xref linkend="cell-referencing" /> for more details).
But manually entering in cell ranges is slow and cumbersome. </para>
<para>When entering data into a cell, and the cursor is at a point
where a cell reference is appropriate, it is possible to define a cell
reference by selecting a cell via the mouse or keyboard. This selection
is a little different from the ordinary selection. It is highlighted
by a "marching ants" border. </para>
<figure id="editing-cell-selection">
<title>The highlighted selection</title>
<mediaobject>
<imageobject>
<imagedata fileref="figures/editing-cell-selection-1.png"
format="PNG" />
</imageobject>
</mediaobject>
</figure>
<sect2 id="entering-data-formula-mouse">
<title>Entering data into a formula with the mouse</title>
<para>
To make a cell reference using the mouse:
</para>
<procedure>
<title>Using the mouse to enter a cell reference into a formula</title>
<step>
<para>
Begin entering a formula as you would normally. Stop at the
point where a cell reference is appropriate. For example,
example, type <userinput>=exp(</userinput>
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
Click on the cell you want to reference. Its reference will
be entered into the formula.
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
To finish the formula, just type in the closing parenthesis. This will
also "unselect" the region.
</para>
</step>
</procedure>
<para>This can be used to select a range of cells just like regular selections. </para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="entering-data-formula-keyboard">
<title>Entering data into a formula with the keyboard.</title>
<para>If entering lots of formulas or even just entering a few formulas, it is
often quickest to use the keyboard to select cells and ranges of cells for use
in formulas. Just as reaching a input point allows the user to select cells
with the mouse, it is possible to use the keyboard to select cells. Just use
the cursor keys and selection modifiers to create a selection.</para>
<procedure>
<title>Using the keyboard to enter data into a formula.</title>
<step>
<para>
Select a cell to enter a formula into. For example A1.
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>Enter a formula, but stop the cursor at a point
where a cell reference is appropriate. For this example,
=SUM(
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
Move the selection around with the cursor keys. Move the selection
cursor to cell B1 to start the selection.
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
Hold down <keycap>Shift</keycap> and move the selection one cell
over and one cell down. Cells B1,B2,C1,C2 should now be selected and
the formula should show =sum(B1:C2
</para>
</step>
<step>
<para>
To finish the function, close the parenthesis. The cell should
now show =sum(B1:C2). Press enter and the formula is entered.
</para>
</step>
</procedure>
<para>To select a range of cell, hold <keycap>Shift</keycap> and move over the desired area.</para>
<para>To stop entering a selection or to start over, press <keycombo><keycap>Shift</keycap>
<keycap>Backspace</keycap></keycombo></para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
<!-- include the files for handling selections -->
&selections;
<sect1 id="formulas">
<title>Formulas</title>
<para>
Formulas are the key to making a powerful spreadsheet. A formula
can perform calculations on almost anything, including single
numbers, cells of data ("cell references"), ranges of cells,
arrays of cells, and more.
</para>
<sect2>
<title>Syntax</title>
<para> Formulas are distinguished from regular data by an equals
sign, '=,' as the first character. Everything following a '=' is
evaluated as a formula, not a string or a number.
</para>
<tip>
<title>Alternate Beginnings for Formulas</title>
<para>
To accomodate those more familiar with Lotus spreadsheets,
Gnumeric recognizes the at symbol as the beginning of a formula.
The plus and minus characters (+ and -) may also start formulas
that involve calculation, but when used in front of a single
number indicate the sign of the number.
</para>
</tip>
<para> The simplest formulas just use the standard math operator
and symbols. Addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division
are represented by +, -, *, and /, just as you would expect. +,-
can be placed in front of numbers to indicate sign, as
well.
</para>
<example id="standardoperators">
<title>Examples of standard operators</title>
<programlisting>
=5+5 returns 10.
=5-4 returns 1.
=-5 returns -5.
=5*5 returns 25.
=(5*5)+11 returns 36.
=(5*5)+(49/7) returns 32.
</programlisting>
</example>
</sect2>
<sect2>
<title>Using Functions</title>
<para>Most of the standard math, business, statistical, and
scientific calculations are implemented in terms of
functions. Functions are in the form of:</para>
<example id="basicfunctionsyntax">
<title>Basic Function syntax</title>
<programlisting>
=FUNCTION(ARGUMENTS)
</programlisting>
</example>
<para> While the documentation generally refers to functions and
to cells in capital letters, their use is not actually case
sensitive.</para>
<example id="functionsyntax">
<title>Some examples of function syntax</title>
<programlisting>
=SUM(A1,A2,A4,B5)
=AVERAGE(A1:A16)
=EXP(1)
=PI()
=MIN(A1,A2,B6)
</programlisting>
</example>
<para>Where a function takes multiple arguments such as the
SUM example, the number of arguments effectively unlimited.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="formulas-names">
<title>Names</title>
<para>Names help to simplify complex formulae. A name is assinged to
a formula which will be evaluated when it is referred to in another
formula. Names are particularly useful for labeling cell ranges.</para>
<example id="namesyntax">
<title>Examples of name usage</title>
<para>If DataBase is defined as '$A$1:$B$500' and
E_Constant is defined as 2.71828182845 then we can have:</para>
<programlisting>
=VLOOKUP (C1, "gnu", DataBase, 2, 0)
=LN(E_Constant)
=SUM(DataBase, E_Constant)
</programlisting>
</example>
<para>Names are defined using the <guimenu>Insert</guimenu>
<guimenuitem>Name</guimenuitem> dialog. This allows manipulation of
all the names in the related workbook. A name is restrained from taking
that of a function, since this would cause confusion.</para>
<para>In addition to the names you define there are built in names:</para> <itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>"Sheet_Title:" this returns the name of the current sheet</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</sect2>
<sect2>
<title>Array Formulas</title>
<para>It is periodically useful or necessary to have an expression return
a matrix rather than a single value. The first example most people think
of are matrix operations such as multiplication, transpose, and inverse.
A less obvious usage is for data retrieval routines (databases, realtime
data-feeds) or functions with vector results (yield curve calculations).
</para>
<example id="arrayformulacreate">
<title>Entering an Array Formula</title>
<para>An array formula is currently entered by selecting the single
range in which to store the result, entering the array formula,
and hitting the magic combination, Ctrl-Shift-Enter.
</para>
<para>The result is displayed as :</para>
<programlisting>
={FUNCTION(ARGUMENTS)}(num_rows, num_cols)[row number][col number]
</programlisting>
</example>
</sect2>
</sect1>
<!-- Keep this comment at the end of the file
Local variables:
mode: sgml
sgml-omittag:t
sgml-shorttag:t
sgml-minimize-attributes:nil
sgml-always-quote-attributes:t
sgml-indent-step:2
sgml-indent-data:t
sgml-parent-document:nil
sgml-exposed-tags:nil
sgml-local-catalogs:nil
sgml-local-ecat-files:nil
End:
-->
......@@ -9,11 +9,11 @@ GNU oleo">
<!ENTITY menus SYSTEM "menus.xml">
<!ENTITY toolbars SYSTEM "toolbars.xml">
<!ENTITY worksheet SYSTEM "worksheet.xml">
<!ENTITY editing SYSTEM "editing.xml">
<!--
<!ENTITY editing SYSTEM "editing.sgml">
<!ENTITY numberformat SYSTEM "number-format.sgml">
<!ENTITY formulas SYSTEM "formulas.sgml">
-->
<!ENTITY formulas SYSTEM "formulas.sgml">
<!ENTITY cellrefer SYSTEM "cell_refer.xml">
<!ENTITY selections SYSTEM "selections.xml">
<!ENTITY copying-moving SYSTEM "copying-moving.xml">
......@@ -101,12 +101,12 @@ GNU oleo">
</title>
&worksheet;
</chapter>
<!--
<chapter id="editing">
<title>Entering data</title>
&editing;
</chapter>
-->
<chapter id="copying-moving">
<title>Copying and Moving</title>
&copying-moving;
......
......@@ -78,7 +78,7 @@
<para>
The Cancel button
<guibutton>
<inlinegraphic fileref="figures/worksheet-data-4.png" />
<inlinegraphic fileref="figures/worksheet-data-4.png" format="PNG"/>
</guibutton>
can be used to cancel the current edit and to restore the cell contents to
the previous state. If a user decides in the middle of an edit
......@@ -101,7 +101,7 @@
<para>The confirm button
<guibutton>
<inlinegraphic fileref="figures/worksheet-data-3"
<inlinegraphic fileref="figures/worksheet-data-3.png"
format="PNG" />
</guibutton>.
can be used to finish the edit of a cell and enter the edit into the
......
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