gspawn.c 57.1 KB
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/* gspawn.c - Process launching
 *
 *  Copyright 2000 Red Hat, Inc.
 *  g_execvpe implementation based on GNU libc execvp:
 *   Copyright 1991, 92, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
 *
 * GLib is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
 * modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as
 * published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the
 * License, or (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * GLib is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
 * Lesser General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
 * License along with GLib; see the file COPYING.LIB.  If not, write
 * to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330,
 * Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
 */

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#include "config.h"
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#include <sys/time.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <signal.h>
#include <string.h>
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#include <stdlib.h>   /* for fdwalk */
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#include <dirent.h>
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#ifdef HAVE_SYS_SELECT_H
#include <sys/select.h>
#endif /* HAVE_SYS_SELECT_H */

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#ifdef HAVE_SYS_RESOURCE_H
#include <sys/resource.h>
#endif /* HAVE_SYS_RESOURCE_H */

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#include "gspawn.h"
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#include "gthread.h"
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#include "glib/gstdio.h"
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#include "genviron.h"
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#include "gmem.h"
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#include "gshell.h"
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#include "gstring.h"
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#include "gstrfuncs.h"
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#include "gtestutils.h"
#include "gutils.h"
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#include "glibintl.h"
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#include "glib-unix.h"
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/**
 * SECTION:spawn
 * @Short_description: process launching
 * @Title: Spawning Processes
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 *
 * GLib supports spawning of processes with an API that is more
 * convenient than the bare UNIX fork() and exec().
 *
 * The g_spawn family of functions has synchronous (g_spawn_sync())
 * and asynchronous variants (g_spawn_async(), g_spawn_async_with_pipes()),
 * as well as convenience variants that take a complete shell-like
 * commandline (g_spawn_command_line_sync(), g_spawn_command_line_async()).
 *
 * See #GSubprocess in GIO for a higher-level API that provides
 * stream interfaces for communication with child processes.
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 */



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static gint g_execute (const gchar  *file,
                       gchar **argv,
                       gchar **envp,
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                       gboolean search_path,
                       gboolean search_path_from_envp);
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static gboolean fork_exec_with_pipes (gboolean              intermediate_child,
                                      const gchar          *working_directory,
                                      gchar               **argv,
                                      gchar               **envp,
                                      gboolean              close_descriptors,
                                      gboolean              search_path,
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                                      gboolean              search_path_from_envp,
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                                      gboolean              stdout_to_null,
                                      gboolean              stderr_to_null,
                                      gboolean              child_inherits_stdin,
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                                      gboolean              file_and_argv_zero,
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                                      gboolean              cloexec_pipes,
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                                      GSpawnChildSetupFunc  child_setup,
                                      gpointer              user_data,
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                                      GPid                 *child_pid,
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                                      gint                 *standard_input,
                                      gint                 *standard_output,
                                      gint                 *standard_error,
                                      GError              **error);

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G_DEFINE_QUARK (g-exec-error-quark, g_spawn_error)
G_DEFINE_QUARK (g-spawn-exit-error-quark, g_spawn_exit_error)
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/**
 * g_spawn_async:
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 * @working_directory: (type filename) (nullable): child's current working directory, or %NULL to inherit parent's
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 * @argv: (array zero-terminated=1): child's argument vector
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 * @envp: (array zero-terminated=1) (nullable): child's environment, or %NULL to inherit parent's
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 * @flags: flags from #GSpawnFlags
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 * @child_setup: (scope async) (nullable): function to run in the child just before exec()
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 * @user_data: (closure): user data for @child_setup
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 * @child_pid: (out) (optional): return location for child process reference, or %NULL
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 * @error: return location for error
 * 
 * See g_spawn_async_with_pipes() for a full description; this function
 * simply calls the g_spawn_async_with_pipes() without any pipes.
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 *
 * You should call g_spawn_close_pid() on the returned child process
 * reference when you don't need it any more.
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 * 
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 * If you are writing a GTK+ application, and the program you are
 * spawning is a graphical application, too, then you may want to
 * use gdk_spawn_on_screen() instead to ensure that the spawned program
 * opens its windows on the right screen.
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 *
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 * Note that the returned @child_pid on Windows is a handle to the child
 * process and not its identifier. Process handles and process identifiers
 * are different concepts on Windows.
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 *
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 * Returns: %TRUE on success, %FALSE if error is set
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 **/
gboolean
g_spawn_async (const gchar          *working_directory,
               gchar               **argv,
               gchar               **envp,
               GSpawnFlags           flags,
               GSpawnChildSetupFunc  child_setup,
               gpointer              user_data,
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               GPid                 *child_pid,
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               GError              **error)
{
  g_return_val_if_fail (argv != NULL, FALSE);
  
  return g_spawn_async_with_pipes (working_directory,
                                   argv, envp,
                                   flags,
                                   child_setup,
                                   user_data,
                                   child_pid,
                                   NULL, NULL, NULL,
                                   error);
}

/* Avoids a danger in threaded situations (calling close()
 * on a file descriptor twice, and another thread has
 * re-opened it since the first close)
 */
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static void
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close_and_invalidate (gint *fd)
{
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  if (*fd < 0)
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    return;
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  else
    {
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      (void) g_close (*fd, NULL);
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      *fd = -1;
    }
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}

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/* Some versions of OS X define READ_OK in public headers */
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#undef READ_OK

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typedef enum
{
  READ_FAILED = 0, /* FALSE */
  READ_OK,
  READ_EOF
} ReadResult;

static ReadResult
read_data (GString *str,
           gint     fd,
           GError **error)
{
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  gssize bytes;
  gchar buf[4096];
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 again:
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  bytes = read (fd, buf, 4096);
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  if (bytes == 0)
    return READ_EOF;
  else if (bytes > 0)
    {
      g_string_append_len (str, buf, bytes);
      return READ_OK;
    }
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  else if (errno == EINTR)
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    goto again;
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  else
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    {
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      int errsv = errno;

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      g_set_error (error,
                   G_SPAWN_ERROR,
                   G_SPAWN_ERROR_READ,
                   _("Failed to read data from child process (%s)"),
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                   g_strerror (errsv));
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      return READ_FAILED;
    }
}

/**
 * g_spawn_sync:
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 * @working_directory: (type filename) (nullable): child's current working directory, or %NULL to inherit parent's
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 * @argv: (array zero-terminated=1): child's argument vector
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 * @envp: (array zero-terminated=1) (nullable): child's environment, or %NULL to inherit parent's
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 * @flags: flags from #GSpawnFlags
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 * @child_setup: (scope async) (nullable): function to run in the child just before exec()
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 * @user_data: (closure): user data for @child_setup
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 * @standard_output: (out) (array zero-terminated=1) (element-type guint8) (optional): return location for child output, or %NULL
 * @standard_error: (out) (array zero-terminated=1) (element-type guint8) (optional): return location for child error messages, or %NULL
 * @exit_status: (out) (optional): return location for child exit status, as returned by waitpid(), or %NULL
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 * @error: return location for error, or %NULL
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 *
 * Executes a child synchronously (waits for the child to exit before returning).
 * All output from the child is stored in @standard_output and @standard_error,
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 * if those parameters are non-%NULL. Note that you must set the  
 * %G_SPAWN_STDOUT_TO_DEV_NULL and %G_SPAWN_STDERR_TO_DEV_NULL flags when
 * passing %NULL for @standard_output and @standard_error.
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 *
 * If @exit_status is non-%NULL, the platform-specific exit status of
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 * the child is stored there; see the documentation of
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 * g_spawn_check_exit_status() for how to use and interpret this.
 * Note that it is invalid to pass %G_SPAWN_DO_NOT_REAP_CHILD in
 * @flags.
 *
 * If an error occurs, no data is returned in @standard_output,
 * @standard_error, or @exit_status.
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 *
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 * This function calls g_spawn_async_with_pipes() internally; see that
 * function for full details on the other parameters and details on
 * how these functions work on Windows.
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 * 
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 * Returns: %TRUE on success, %FALSE if an error was set
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 */
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gboolean
g_spawn_sync (const gchar          *working_directory,
              gchar               **argv,
              gchar               **envp,
              GSpawnFlags           flags,
              GSpawnChildSetupFunc  child_setup,
              gpointer              user_data,
              gchar               **standard_output,
              gchar               **standard_error,
              gint                 *exit_status,
              GError              **error)     
{
  gint outpipe = -1;
  gint errpipe = -1;
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  GPid pid;
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  fd_set fds;
  gint ret;
  GString *outstr = NULL;
  GString *errstr = NULL;
  gboolean failed;
  gint status;
  
  g_return_val_if_fail (argv != NULL, FALSE);
  g_return_val_if_fail (!(flags & G_SPAWN_DO_NOT_REAP_CHILD), FALSE);
  g_return_val_if_fail (standard_output == NULL ||
                        !(flags & G_SPAWN_STDOUT_TO_DEV_NULL), FALSE);
  g_return_val_if_fail (standard_error == NULL ||
                        !(flags & G_SPAWN_STDERR_TO_DEV_NULL), FALSE);
  
  /* Just to ensure segfaults if callers try to use
   * these when an error is reported.
   */
  if (standard_output)
    *standard_output = NULL;

  if (standard_error)
    *standard_error = NULL;
  
  if (!fork_exec_with_pipes (FALSE,
                             working_directory,
                             argv,
                             envp,
                             !(flags & G_SPAWN_LEAVE_DESCRIPTORS_OPEN),
                             (flags & G_SPAWN_SEARCH_PATH) != 0,
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                             (flags & G_SPAWN_SEARCH_PATH_FROM_ENVP) != 0,
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                             (flags & G_SPAWN_STDOUT_TO_DEV_NULL) != 0,
                             (flags & G_SPAWN_STDERR_TO_DEV_NULL) != 0,
                             (flags & G_SPAWN_CHILD_INHERITS_STDIN) != 0,
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                             (flags & G_SPAWN_FILE_AND_ARGV_ZERO) != 0,
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                             (flags & G_SPAWN_CLOEXEC_PIPES) != 0,
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                             child_setup,
                             user_data,
                             &pid,
                             NULL,
                             standard_output ? &outpipe : NULL,
                             standard_error ? &errpipe : NULL,
                             error))
    return FALSE;

  /* Read data from child. */
  
  failed = FALSE;

  if (outpipe >= 0)
    {
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      outstr = g_string_new (NULL);
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    }
      
  if (errpipe >= 0)
    {
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      errstr = g_string_new (NULL);
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    }

  /* Read data until we get EOF on both pipes. */
  while (!failed &&
         (outpipe >= 0 ||
          errpipe >= 0))
    {
      ret = 0;
          
      FD_ZERO (&fds);
      if (outpipe >= 0)
        FD_SET (outpipe, &fds);
      if (errpipe >= 0)
        FD_SET (errpipe, &fds);
          
      ret = select (MAX (outpipe, errpipe) + 1,
                    &fds,
                    NULL, NULL,
                    NULL /* no timeout */);

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      if (ret < 0)
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        {
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          int errsv = errno;

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	  if (errno == EINTR)
	    continue;

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          failed = TRUE;

          g_set_error (error,
                       G_SPAWN_ERROR,
                       G_SPAWN_ERROR_READ,
                       _("Unexpected error in select() reading data from a child process (%s)"),
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                       g_strerror (errsv));
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          break;
        }

      if (outpipe >= 0 && FD_ISSET (outpipe, &fds))
        {
          switch (read_data (outstr, outpipe, error))
            {
            case READ_FAILED:
              failed = TRUE;
              break;
            case READ_EOF:
              close_and_invalidate (&outpipe);
              outpipe = -1;
              break;
            default:
              break;
            }

          if (failed)
            break;
        }

      if (errpipe >= 0 && FD_ISSET (errpipe, &fds))
        {
          switch (read_data (errstr, errpipe, error))
            {
            case READ_FAILED:
              failed = TRUE;
              break;
            case READ_EOF:
              close_and_invalidate (&errpipe);
              errpipe = -1;
              break;
            default:
              break;
            }

          if (failed)
            break;
        }
    }

  /* These should only be open still if we had an error.  */
  
  if (outpipe >= 0)
    close_and_invalidate (&outpipe);
  if (errpipe >= 0)
    close_and_invalidate (&errpipe);
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  /* Wait for child to exit, even if we have
   * an error pending.
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   */
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 again:
      
  ret = waitpid (pid, &status, 0);

  if (ret < 0)
    {
      if (errno == EINTR)
        goto again;
      else if (errno == ECHILD)
        {
          if (exit_status)
            {
              g_warning ("In call to g_spawn_sync(), exit status of a child process was requested but ECHILD was received by waitpid(). Most likely the process is ignoring SIGCHLD, or some other thread is invoking waitpid() with a nonpositive first argument; either behavior can break applications that use g_spawn_sync either directly or indirectly.");
            }
          else
            {
              /* We don't need the exit status. */
            }
        }
      else
        {
          if (!failed) /* avoid error pileups */
            {
              int errsv = errno;

              failed = TRUE;
                  
              g_set_error (error,
                           G_SPAWN_ERROR,
                           G_SPAWN_ERROR_READ,
                           _("Unexpected error in waitpid() (%s)"),
                           g_strerror (errsv));
            }
        }
    }
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  if (failed)
    {
      if (outstr)
        g_string_free (outstr, TRUE);
      if (errstr)
        g_string_free (errstr, TRUE);

      return FALSE;
    }
  else
    {
      if (exit_status)
        *exit_status = status;
      
      if (standard_output)        
        *standard_output = g_string_free (outstr, FALSE);

      if (standard_error)
        *standard_error = g_string_free (errstr, FALSE);

      return TRUE;
    }
}

/**
 * g_spawn_async_with_pipes:
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 * @working_directory: (type filename) (nullable): child's current working directory, or %NULL to inherit parent's, in the GLib file name encoding
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 * @argv: (array zero-terminated=1): child's argument vector, in the GLib file name encoding
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 * @envp: (array zero-terminated=1) (nullable): child's environment, or %NULL to inherit parent's, in the GLib file name encoding
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 * @flags: flags from #GSpawnFlags
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 * @child_setup: (scope async) (nullable): function to run in the child just before exec()
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 * @user_data: (closure): user data for @child_setup
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 * @child_pid: (out) (optional): return location for child process ID, or %NULL
 * @standard_input: (out) (optional): return location for file descriptor to write to child's stdin, or %NULL
 * @standard_output: (out) (optional): return location for file descriptor to read child's stdout, or %NULL
 * @standard_error: (out) (optional): return location for file descriptor to read child's stderr, or %NULL
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 * @error: return location for error
 *
 * Executes a child program asynchronously (your program will not
 * block waiting for the child to exit). The child program is
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 * specified by the only argument that must be provided, @argv.
 * @argv should be a %NULL-terminated array of strings, to be passed
 * as the argument vector for the child. The first string in @argv
 * is of course the name of the program to execute. By default, the
 * name of the program must be a full path. If @flags contains the
 * %G_SPAWN_SEARCH_PATH flag, the `PATH` environment variable is
 * used to search for the executable. If @flags contains the
 * %G_SPAWN_SEARCH_PATH_FROM_ENVP flag, the `PATH` variable from 
 * @envp is used to search for the executable. If both the
 * %G_SPAWN_SEARCH_PATH and %G_SPAWN_SEARCH_PATH_FROM_ENVP flags
 * are set, the `PATH` variable from @envp takes precedence over
 * the environment variable.
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 *
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 * If the program name is not a full path and %G_SPAWN_SEARCH_PATH flag is not
 * used, then the program will be run from the current directory (or
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 * @working_directory, if specified); this might be unexpected or even
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 * dangerous in some cases when the current directory is world-writable.
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 *
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 * On Windows, note that all the string or string vector arguments to
 * this function and the other g_spawn*() functions are in UTF-8, the
 * GLib file name encoding. Unicode characters that are not part of
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 * the system codepage passed in these arguments will be correctly
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 * available in the spawned program only if it uses wide character API
 * to retrieve its command line. For C programs built with Microsoft's
 * tools it is enough to make the program have a wmain() instead of
 * main(). wmain() has a wide character argument vector as parameter.
 *
 * At least currently, mingw doesn't support wmain(), so if you use
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 * mingw to develop the spawned program, it should call
 * g_win32_get_command_line() to get arguments in UTF-8.
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 *
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 * On Windows the low-level child process creation API CreateProcess()
 * doesn't use argument vectors, but a command line. The C runtime
 * library's spawn*() family of functions (which g_spawn_async_with_pipes()
 * eventually calls) paste the argument vector elements together into
 * a command line, and the C runtime startup code does a corresponding
 * reconstruction of an argument vector from the command line, to be
 * passed to main(). Complications arise when you have argument vector
 * elements that contain spaces of double quotes. The spawn*() functions
 * don't do any quoting or escaping, but on the other hand the startup
 * code does do unquoting and unescaping in order to enable receiving
 * arguments with embedded spaces or double quotes. To work around this
 * asymmetry, g_spawn_async_with_pipes() will do quoting and escaping on
 * argument vector elements that need it before calling the C runtime
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 * spawn() function.
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 *
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 * The returned @child_pid on Windows is a handle to the child
 * process, not its identifier. Process handles and process
 * identifiers are different concepts on Windows.
 *
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 * @envp is a %NULL-terminated array of strings, where each string
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 * has the form `KEY=VALUE`. This will become the child's environment.
 * If @envp is %NULL, the child inherits its parent's environment.
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 *
 * @flags should be the bitwise OR of any flags you want to affect the
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 * function's behaviour. The %G_SPAWN_DO_NOT_REAP_CHILD means that the
 * child will not automatically be reaped; you must use a child watch to
 * be notified about the death of the child process. Eventually you must
 * call g_spawn_close_pid() on the @child_pid, in order to free
 * resources which may be associated with the child process. (On Unix,
 * using a child watch is equivalent to calling waitpid() or handling
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 * the %SIGCHLD signal manually. On Windows, calling g_spawn_close_pid()
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 * is equivalent to calling CloseHandle() on the process handle returned
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 * in @child_pid). See g_child_watch_add().
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 *
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 * %G_SPAWN_LEAVE_DESCRIPTORS_OPEN means that the parent's open file
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 * descriptors will be inherited by the child; otherwise all descriptors
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 * except stdin/stdout/stderr will be closed before calling exec() in
 * the child. %G_SPAWN_SEARCH_PATH means that @argv[0] need not be an
 * absolute path, it will be looked for in the `PATH` environment
 * variable. %G_SPAWN_SEARCH_PATH_FROM_ENVP means need not be an
 * absolute path, it will be looked for in the `PATH` variable from
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 * @envp. If both %G_SPAWN_SEARCH_PATH and %G_SPAWN_SEARCH_PATH_FROM_ENVP
 * are used, the value from @envp takes precedence over the environment.
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 * %G_SPAWN_STDOUT_TO_DEV_NULL means that the child's standard output
 * will be discarded, instead of going to the same location as the parent's 
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 * standard output. If you use this flag, @standard_output must be %NULL.
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 * %G_SPAWN_STDERR_TO_DEV_NULL means that the child's standard error
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 * will be discarded, instead of going to the same location as the parent's
 * standard error. If you use this flag, @standard_error must be %NULL.
 * %G_SPAWN_CHILD_INHERITS_STDIN means that the child will inherit the parent's
 * standard input (by default, the child's standard input is attached to
 * /dev/null). If you use this flag, @standard_input must be %NULL.
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 * %G_SPAWN_FILE_AND_ARGV_ZERO means that the first element of @argv is
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 * the file to execute, while the remaining elements are the actual
 * argument vector to pass to the file. Normally g_spawn_async_with_pipes()
 * uses @argv[0] as the file to execute, and passes all of @argv to the child.
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 *
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 * @child_setup and @user_data are a function and user data. On POSIX
 * platforms, the function is called in the child after GLib has
 * performed all the setup it plans to perform (including creating
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 * pipes, closing file descriptors, etc.) but before calling exec().
 * That is, @child_setup is called just before calling exec() in the
 * child. Obviously actions taken in this function will only affect
 * the child, not the parent.
 *
 * On Windows, there is no separate fork() and exec() functionality.
 * Child processes are created and run with a single API call,
 * CreateProcess(). There is no sensible thing @child_setup
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 * could be used for on Windows so it is ignored and not called.
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 *
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 * If non-%NULL, @child_pid will on Unix be filled with the child's
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 * process ID. You can use the process ID to send signals to the child,
 * or to use g_child_watch_add() (or waitpid()) if you specified the
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 * %G_SPAWN_DO_NOT_REAP_CHILD flag. On Windows, @child_pid will be
 * filled with a handle to the child process only if you specified the
 * %G_SPAWN_DO_NOT_REAP_CHILD flag. You can then access the child
 * process using the Win32 API, for example wait for its termination
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 * with the WaitFor*() functions, or examine its exit code with
 * GetExitCodeProcess(). You should close the handle with CloseHandle()
 * or g_spawn_close_pid() when you no longer need it.
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 *
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 * If non-%NULL, the @standard_input, @standard_output, @standard_error
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 * locations will be filled with file descriptors for writing to the child's
 * standard input or reading from its standard output or standard error.
 * The caller of g_spawn_async_with_pipes() must close these file descriptors
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 * when they are no longer in use. If these parameters are %NULL, the
 * corresponding pipe won't be created.
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 *
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 * If @standard_input is NULL, the child's standard input is attached to 
 * /dev/null unless %G_SPAWN_CHILD_INHERITS_STDIN is set.
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 *
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 * If @standard_error is NULL, the child's standard error goes to the same 
 * location as the parent's standard error unless %G_SPAWN_STDERR_TO_DEV_NULL 
 * is set.
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 *
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 * If @standard_output is NULL, the child's standard output goes to the same 
 * location as the parent's standard output unless %G_SPAWN_STDOUT_TO_DEV_NULL 
 * is set.
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 *
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 * @error can be %NULL to ignore errors, or non-%NULL to report errors.
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 * If an error is set, the function returns %FALSE. Errors are reported
 * even if they occur in the child (for example if the executable in
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 * @argv[0] is not found). Typically the `message` field of returned
 * errors should be displayed to users. Possible errors are those from
 * the #G_SPAWN_ERROR domain.
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 *
 * If an error occurs, @child_pid, @standard_input, @standard_output,
 * and @standard_error will not be filled with valid values.
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 *
 * If @child_pid is not %NULL and an error does not occur then the returned
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 * process reference must be closed using g_spawn_close_pid().
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 *
 * If you are writing a GTK+ application, and the program you 
 * are spawning is a graphical application, too, then you may
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 * want to use gdk_spawn_on_screen_with_pipes() instead to ensure that
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 * the spawned program opens its windows on the right screen.
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 * 
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 * Returns: %TRUE on success, %FALSE if an error was set
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 */
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gboolean
g_spawn_async_with_pipes (const gchar          *working_directory,
                          gchar               **argv,
                          gchar               **envp,
                          GSpawnFlags           flags,
                          GSpawnChildSetupFunc  child_setup,
                          gpointer              user_data,
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                          GPid                 *child_pid,
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                          gint                 *standard_input,
                          gint                 *standard_output,
                          gint                 *standard_error,
                          GError              **error)
{
  g_return_val_if_fail (argv != NULL, FALSE);
  g_return_val_if_fail (standard_output == NULL ||
                        !(flags & G_SPAWN_STDOUT_TO_DEV_NULL), FALSE);
  g_return_val_if_fail (standard_error == NULL ||
                        !(flags & G_SPAWN_STDERR_TO_DEV_NULL), FALSE);
  /* can't inherit stdin if we have an input pipe. */
  g_return_val_if_fail (standard_input == NULL ||
                        !(flags & G_SPAWN_CHILD_INHERITS_STDIN), FALSE);
  
  return fork_exec_with_pipes (!(flags & G_SPAWN_DO_NOT_REAP_CHILD),
                               working_directory,
                               argv,
                               envp,
                               !(flags & G_SPAWN_LEAVE_DESCRIPTORS_OPEN),
                               (flags & G_SPAWN_SEARCH_PATH) != 0,
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                               (flags & G_SPAWN_SEARCH_PATH_FROM_ENVP) != 0,
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                               (flags & G_SPAWN_STDOUT_TO_DEV_NULL) != 0,
                               (flags & G_SPAWN_STDERR_TO_DEV_NULL) != 0,
                               (flags & G_SPAWN_CHILD_INHERITS_STDIN) != 0,
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                               (flags & G_SPAWN_FILE_AND_ARGV_ZERO) != 0,
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                               (flags & G_SPAWN_CLOEXEC_PIPES) != 0,
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                               child_setup,
                               user_data,
                               child_pid,
                               standard_input,
                               standard_output,
                               standard_error,
                               error);
}

/**
 * g_spawn_command_line_sync:
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 * @command_line: a command line 
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 * @standard_output: (out) (array zero-terminated=1) (element-type guint8) (optional): return location for child output
 * @standard_error: (out) (array zero-terminated=1) (element-type guint8) (optional): return location for child errors
 * @exit_status: (out) (optional): return location for child exit status, as returned by waitpid()
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 * @error: return location for errors
 *
 * A simple version of g_spawn_sync() with little-used parameters
 * removed, taking a command line instead of an argument vector.  See
 * g_spawn_sync() for full details. @command_line will be parsed by
 * g_shell_parse_argv(). Unlike g_spawn_sync(), the %G_SPAWN_SEARCH_PATH flag
 * is enabled. Note that %G_SPAWN_SEARCH_PATH can have security
 * implications, so consider using g_spawn_sync() directly if
 * appropriate. Possible errors are those from g_spawn_sync() and those
 * from g_shell_parse_argv().
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 *
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 * If @exit_status is non-%NULL, the platform-specific exit status of
 * the child is stored there; see the documentation of
 * g_spawn_check_exit_status() for how to use and interpret this.
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 * 
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 * On Windows, please note the implications of g_shell_parse_argv()
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 * parsing @command_line. Parsing is done according to Unix shell rules, not 
 * Windows command interpreter rules.
 * Space is a separator, and backslashes are
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 * special. Thus you cannot simply pass a @command_line containing
 * canonical Windows paths, like "c:\\program files\\app\\app.exe", as
 * the backslashes will be eaten, and the space will act as a
 * separator. You need to enclose such paths with single quotes, like
 * "'c:\\program files\\app\\app.exe' 'e:\\folder\\argument.txt'".
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 *
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 * Returns: %TRUE on success, %FALSE if an error was set
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 **/
gboolean
g_spawn_command_line_sync (const gchar  *command_line,
                           gchar       **standard_output,
                           gchar       **standard_error,
                           gint         *exit_status,
                           GError      **error)
{
  gboolean retval;
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  gchar **argv = NULL;
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  g_return_val_if_fail (command_line != NULL, FALSE);
  
  if (!g_shell_parse_argv (command_line,
                           NULL, &argv,
                           error))
    return FALSE;
  
  retval = g_spawn_sync (NULL,
                         argv,
                         NULL,
                         G_SPAWN_SEARCH_PATH,
                         NULL,
                         NULL,
                         standard_output,
                         standard_error,
                         exit_status,
                         error);
  g_strfreev (argv);

  return retval;
}

/**
 * g_spawn_command_line_async:
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 * @command_line: a command line
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 * @error: return location for errors
 * 
 * A simple version of g_spawn_async() that parses a command line with
 * g_shell_parse_argv() and passes it to g_spawn_async(). Runs a
 * command line in the background. Unlike g_spawn_async(), the
 * %G_SPAWN_SEARCH_PATH flag is enabled, other flags are not. Note
 * that %G_SPAWN_SEARCH_PATH can have security implications, so
 * consider using g_spawn_async() directly if appropriate. Possible
 * errors are those from g_shell_parse_argv() and g_spawn_async().
 * 
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 * The same concerns on Windows apply as for g_spawn_command_line_sync().
 *
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 * Returns: %TRUE on success, %FALSE if error is set
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 **/
gboolean
g_spawn_command_line_async (const gchar *command_line,
                            GError     **error)
{
  gboolean retval;
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  gchar **argv = NULL;
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  g_return_val_if_fail (command_line != NULL, FALSE);

  if (!g_shell_parse_argv (command_line,
                           NULL, &argv,
                           error))
    return FALSE;
  
  retval = g_spawn_async (NULL,
                          argv,
                          NULL,
                          G_SPAWN_SEARCH_PATH,
                          NULL,
                          NULL,
                          NULL,
                          error);
  g_strfreev (argv);

  return retval;
}

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/**
 * g_spawn_check_exit_status:
 * @exit_status: An exit code as returned from g_spawn_sync()
 * @error: a #GError
 *
 * Set @error if @exit_status indicates the child exited abnormally
 * (e.g. with a nonzero exit code, or via a fatal signal).
 *
 * The g_spawn_sync() and g_child_watch_add() family of APIs return an
 * exit status for subprocesses encoded in a platform-specific way.
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 * On Unix, this is guaranteed to be in the same format waitpid() returns,
 * and on Windows it is guaranteed to be the result of GetExitCodeProcess().
 *
 * Prior to the introduction of this function in GLib 2.34, interpreting
 * @exit_status required use of platform-specific APIs, which is problematic
 * for software using GLib as a cross-platform layer.
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 *
 * Additionally, many programs simply want to determine whether or not
 * the child exited successfully, and either propagate a #GError or
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 * print a message to standard error. In that common case, this function
 * can be used. Note that the error message in @error will contain
 * human-readable information about the exit status.
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 *
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 * The @domain and @code of @error have special semantics in the case
 * where the process has an "exit code", as opposed to being killed by
 * a signal. On Unix, this happens if WIFEXITED() would be true of
 * @exit_status. On Windows, it is always the case.
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 *
 * The special semantics are that the actual exit code will be the
 * code set in @error, and the domain will be %G_SPAWN_EXIT_ERROR.
 * This allows you to differentiate between different exit codes.
 *
 * If the process was terminated by some means other than an exit
 * status, the domain will be %G_SPAWN_ERROR, and the code will be
 * %G_SPAWN_ERROR_FAILED.
 *
 * This function just offers convenience; you can of course also check
 * the available platform via a macro such as %G_OS_UNIX, and use
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 * WIFEXITED() and WEXITSTATUS() on @exit_status directly. Do not attempt
 * to scan or parse the error message string; it may be translated and/or
 * change in future versions of GLib.
 *
 * Returns: %TRUE if child exited successfully, %FALSE otherwise (and
 *     @error will be set)
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 *
 * Since: 2.34
 */
gboolean
g_spawn_check_exit_status (gint      exit_status,
			   GError  **error)
{
  gboolean ret = FALSE;

  if (WIFEXITED (exit_status))
    {
      if (WEXITSTATUS (exit_status) != 0)
	{
	  g_set_error (error, G_SPAWN_EXIT_ERROR, WEXITSTATUS (exit_status),
		       _("Child process exited with code %ld"),
		       (long) WEXITSTATUS (exit_status));
	  goto out;
	}
    }
  else if (WIFSIGNALED (exit_status))
    {
      g_set_error (error, G_SPAWN_ERROR, G_SPAWN_ERROR_FAILED,
		   _("Child process killed by signal %ld"),
		   (long) WTERMSIG (exit_status));
      goto out;
    }
  else if (WIFSTOPPED (exit_status))
    {
      g_set_error (error, G_SPAWN_ERROR, G_SPAWN_ERROR_FAILED,
		   _("Child process stopped by signal %ld"),
		   (long) WSTOPSIG (exit_status));
      goto out;
    }
  else
    {
      g_set_error (error, G_SPAWN_ERROR, G_SPAWN_ERROR_FAILED,
		   _("Child process exited abnormally"));
      goto out;
    }

  ret = TRUE;
 out:
  return ret;
}

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static gint
exec_err_to_g_error (gint en)
{
  switch (en)
    {
#ifdef EACCES
    case EACCES:
      return G_SPAWN_ERROR_ACCES;
      break;
#endif

#ifdef EPERM
    case EPERM:
      return G_SPAWN_ERROR_PERM;
      break;
#endif

#ifdef E2BIG
    case E2BIG:
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      return G_SPAWN_ERROR_TOO_BIG;
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      break;
#endif

#ifdef ENOEXEC
    case ENOEXEC:
      return G_SPAWN_ERROR_NOEXEC;
      break;
#endif

#ifdef ENAMETOOLONG
    case ENAMETOOLONG:
      return G_SPAWN_ERROR_NAMETOOLONG;
      break;
#endif

#ifdef ENOENT
    case ENOENT:
      return G_SPAWN_ERROR_NOENT;
      break;
#endif

#ifdef ENOMEM
    case ENOMEM:
      return G_SPAWN_ERROR_NOMEM;
      break;
#endif

#ifdef ENOTDIR
    case ENOTDIR:
      return G_SPAWN_ERROR_NOTDIR;
      break;
#endif

#ifdef ELOOP
    case ELOOP:
      return G_SPAWN_ERROR_LOOP;
      break;
#endif
      
#ifdef ETXTBUSY
    case ETXTBUSY:
      return G_SPAWN_ERROR_TXTBUSY;
      break;
#endif

#ifdef EIO
    case EIO:
      return G_SPAWN_ERROR_IO;
      break;
#endif

#ifdef ENFILE
    case ENFILE:
      return G_SPAWN_ERROR_NFILE;
      break;
#endif

#ifdef EMFILE
    case EMFILE:
      return G_SPAWN_ERROR_MFILE;
      break;
#endif

#ifdef EINVAL
    case EINVAL:
      return G_SPAWN_ERROR_INVAL;
      break;
#endif

#ifdef EISDIR
    case EISDIR:
      return G_SPAWN_ERROR_ISDIR;
      break;
#endif

#ifdef ELIBBAD
    case ELIBBAD:
      return G_SPAWN_ERROR_LIBBAD;
      break;
#endif
      
    default:
      return G_SPAWN_ERROR_FAILED;
      break;
    }
}

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static gssize
write_all (gint fd, gconstpointer vbuf, gsize to_write)
{
  gchar *buf = (gchar *) vbuf;
  
  while (to_write > 0)
    {
      gssize count = write (fd, buf, to_write);
      if (count < 0)
        {
          if (errno != EINTR)
            return FALSE;
        }
      else
        {
          to_write -= count;
          buf += count;
        }
    }
  
  return TRUE;
}

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G_GNUC_NORETURN
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static void
write_err_and_exit (gint fd, gint msg)
{
  gint en = errno;
  
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  write_all (fd, &msg, sizeof(msg));
  write_all (fd, &en, sizeof(en));
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  _exit (1);
}

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static int
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set_cloexec (void *data, gint fd)
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{
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  if (fd >= GPOINTER_TO_INT (data))
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    fcntl (fd, F_SETFD, FD_CLOEXEC);
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  return 0;
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}

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#ifndef HAVE_FDWALK
static int
fdwalk (int (*cb)(void *data, int fd), void *data)
{
  gint open_max;
  gint fd;
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  gint res = 0;
  
#ifdef HAVE_SYS_RESOURCE_H
  struct rlimit rl;
#endif

#ifdef __linux__  
  DIR *d;

  if ((d = opendir("/proc/self/fd"))) {
      struct dirent *de;

      while ((de = readdir(d))) {
          glong l;
          gchar *e = NULL;

          if (de->d_name[0] == '.')
              continue;
            
          errno = 0;
          l = strtol(de->d_name, &e, 10);
          if (errno != 0 || !e || *e)
              continue;

          fd = (gint) l;

          if ((glong) fd != l)
              continue;

          if (fd == dirfd(d))
              continue;

          if ((res = cb (data, fd)) != 0)
              break;
        }
      
      closedir(d);
      return res;
  }
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  /* If /proc is not mounted or not accessible we fall back to the old
   * rlimit trick */

#endif
  
#ifdef HAVE_SYS_RESOURCE_H
      
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  if (getrlimit(RLIMIT_NOFILE, &rl) == 0 && rl.rlim_max != RLIM_INFINITY)
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      open_max = rl.rlim_max;
  else
#endif
      open_max = sysconf (_SC_OPEN_MAX);

  for (fd = 0; fd < open_max; fd++)
      if ((res = cb (data, fd)) != 0)
          break;
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  return res;
}
#endif

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static gint
sane_dup2 (gint fd1, gint fd2)
{
  gint ret;

 retry:
  ret = dup2 (fd1, fd2);
  if (ret < 0 && errno == EINTR)
    goto retry;

  return ret;
}

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static gint
sane_open (const char *path, gint mode)
{
  gint ret;

 retry:
  ret = open (path, mode);
  if (ret < 0 && errno == EINTR)
    goto retry;

  return ret;
}

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enum
{
  CHILD_CHDIR_FAILED,
  CHILD_EXEC_FAILED,
  CHILD_DUP2_FAILED,
  CHILD_FORK_FAILED
};

static void
do_exec (gint                  child_err_report_fd,
         gint                  stdin_fd,
         gint                  stdout_fd,
         gint                  stderr_fd,
         const gchar          *working_directory,
         gchar               **argv,
         gchar               **envp,
         gboolean              close_descriptors,
         gboolean              search_path,
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         gboolean              search_path_from_envp,
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         gboolean              stdout_to_null,
         gboolean              stderr_to_null,
         gboolean              child_inherits_stdin,
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         gboolean              file_and_argv_zero,
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         GSpawnChildSetupFunc  child_setup,
         gpointer              user_data)
{
  if (working_directory && chdir (working_directory) < 0)
    write_err_and_exit (child_err_report_fd,
                        CHILD_CHDIR_FAILED);

  /* Close all file descriptors but stdin stdout and stderr as
   * soon as we exec. Note that this includes
   * child_err_report_fd, which keeps the parent from blocking
   * forever on the other end of that pipe.
   */
  if (close_descriptors)
    {
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      fdwalk (set_cloexec, GINT_TO_POINTER(3));
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    }
  else
    {
      /* We need to do child_err_report_fd anyway */
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      set_cloexec (GINT_TO_POINTER(0), child_err_report_fd);
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    }
  
  /* Redirect pipes as required */
  
  if (stdin_fd >= 0)
    {
      /* dup2 can't actually fail here I don't think */
          
      if (sane_dup2 (stdin_fd, 0) < 0)
        write_err_and_exit (child_err_report_fd,
                            CHILD_DUP2_FAILED);

      /* ignore this if it doesn't work */
      close_and_invalidate (&stdin_fd);
    }
  else if (!child_inherits_stdin)
    {
      /* Keep process from blocking on a read of stdin */
      gint read_null = open ("/dev/null", O_RDONLY);
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      g_assert (read_null != -1);
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      sane_dup2 (read_null, 0);
      close_and_invalidate (&read_null);
    }

  if (stdout_fd >= 0)
    {
      /* dup2 can't actually fail here I don't think */
          
      if (sane_dup2 (stdout_fd, 1) < 0)
        write_err_and_exit (child_err_report_fd,
                            CHILD_DUP2_FAILED);

      /* ignore this if it doesn't work */
      close_and_invalidate (&stdout_fd);
    }
  else if (stdout_to_null)
    {
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      gint write_null = sane_open ("/dev/null", O_WRONLY);
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      g_assert (write_null != -1);
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      sane_dup2 (write_null, 1);
      close_and_invalidate (&write_null);
    }

  if (stderr_fd >= 0)
    {
      /* dup2 can't actually fail here I don't think */
          
      if (sane_dup2 (stderr_fd, 2) < 0)
        write_err_and_exit (child_err_report_fd,
                            CHILD_DUP2_FAILED);

      /* ignore this if it doesn't work */
      close_and_invalidate (&stderr_fd);
    }
  else if (stderr_to_null)
    {
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      gint write_null = sane_open ("/dev/null", O_WRONLY);
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      sane_dup2 (write_null, 2);
      close_and_invalidate (&write_null);
    }
  
  /* Call user function just before we exec */
  if (child_setup)
    {
      (* child_setup) (user_data);
    }

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  g_execute (argv[0],
             file_and_argv_zero ? argv + 1 : argv,
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             envp, search_path, search_path_from_envp);
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  /* Exec failed */
  write_err_and_exit (child_err_report_fd,
                      CHILD_EXEC_FAILED);
}

static gboolean
read_ints (int      fd,
           gint*    buf,
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           gint     n_ints_in_buf,    
           gint    *n_ints_read,      
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           GError **error)
{
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  gsize bytes = 0;    
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  while (TRUE)
    {
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      gssize chunk;    
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      if (bytes >= sizeof(gint)*2)
        break; /* give up, who knows what happened, should not be
                * possible.
                */
          
    again:
      chunk = read (fd,
                    ((gchar*)buf) + bytes,
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                    sizeof(gint) * n_ints_in_buf - bytes);
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      if (chunk < 0 && errno == EINTR)
        goto again;
          
      if (chunk < 0)
        {
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          int errsv = errno;

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          /* Some weird shit happened, bail out */
          g_set_error (error,
                       G_SPAWN_ERROR,
                       G_SPAWN_ERROR_FAILED,
                       _("Failed to read from child pipe (%s)"),
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                       g_strerror (errsv));
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          return FALSE;
        }
      else if (chunk == 0)
        break; /* EOF */
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      else /* chunk > 0 */
	bytes += chunk;
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    }

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  *n_ints_read = (gint)(bytes / sizeof(gint));
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  return TRUE;
}

static gboolean
fork_exec_with_pipes (gboolean              intermediate_child,
                      const gchar          *working_directory,
                      gchar               **argv,
                      gchar               **envp,
                      gboolean              close_descriptors,
                      gboolean              search_path,
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                      gboolean              search_path_from_envp,
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                      gboolean              stdout_to_null,
                      gboolean              stderr_to_null,
                      gboolean              child_inherits_stdin,
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                      gboolean              file_and_argv_zero,
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                      gboolean              cloexec_pipes,
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                      GSpawnChildSetupFunc  child_setup,
                      gpointer              user_data,
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                      GPid                 *child_pid,
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                      gint                 *standard_input,
                      gint                 *standard_output,
                      gint                 *standard_error,
                      GError              **error)     
{
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  GPid pid = -1;
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  gint stdin_pipe[2] = { -1, -1 };
  gint stdout_pipe[2] = { -1, -1 };
  gint stderr_pipe[2] = { -1, -1 };
  gint child_err_report_pipe[2] = { -1, -1 };
  gint child_pid_report_pipe[2] = { -1, -1 };
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  guint pipe_flags = cloexec_pipes ? FD_CLOEXEC : 0;
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  gint status;
  
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  if (!g_unix_open_pipe (child_err_report_pipe, pipe_flags, error))
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    return FALSE;

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  if (intermediate_child && !g_unix_open_pipe (child_pid_report_pipe, pipe_flags, error))
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    goto cleanup_and_fail;
  
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  if (standard_input && !g_unix_open_pipe (stdin_pipe, pipe_flags, error))
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    goto cleanup_and_fail;
  
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  if (standard_output && !g_unix_open_pipe (stdout_pipe, pipe_flags, error))
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    goto cleanup_and_fail;

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  if (standard_error && !g_unix_open_pipe (stderr_pipe, FD_CLOEXEC, error))
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    goto cleanup_and_fail;

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  pid = fork ();
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  if (pid < 0)
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    {
      int errsv = errno;

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      g_set_error (error,
                   G_SPAWN_ERROR,
                   G_SPAWN_ERROR_FORK,
                   _("Failed to fork (%s)"),
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                   g_strerror (errsv));
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      goto cleanup_and_fail;
    }
  else if (pid == 0)
    {
      /* Immediate child. This may or may not be the child that
       * actually execs the new process.
       */
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      /* Reset some signal handlers that we may use */
      signal (SIGCHLD, SIG_DFL);
      signal (SIGINT, SIG_DFL);
      signal (SIGTERM, SIG_DFL);
      signal (SIGHUP, SIG_DFL);
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      /* Be sure we crash if the parent exits
       * and we write to the err_report_pipe
       */
      signal (SIGPIPE, SIG_DFL);

      /* Close the parent's end of the pipes;
       * not needed in the close_descriptors case,
       * though
       */
      close_and_invalidate (&child_err_report_pipe[0]);
      close_and_invalidate (&child_pid_report_pipe[0]);
      close_and_invalidate (&stdin_pipe[1]);
      close_and_invalidate (&stdout_pipe[0]);
      close_and_invalidate (&stderr_pipe[0]);
      
      if (intermediate_child)
        {
          /* We need to fork an intermediate child that launches the
           * final child. The purpose of the intermediate child
           * is to exit, so we can waitpid() it immediately.
           * Then the grandchild will not become a zombie.
           */
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          GPid grandchild_pid;
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          grandchild_pid = fork ();
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          if (grandchild_pid < 0)
            {
              /* report -1 as child PID */
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              write_all (child_pid_report_pipe[1], &grandchild_pid,
                         sizeof(grandchild_pid));
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              write_err_and_exit (child_err_report_pipe[1],
                                  CHILD_FORK_FAILED);              
            }
          else if (grandchild_pid == 0)
            {
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              close_and_invalidate (&child_pid_report_pipe[1]);
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              do_exec (child_err_report_pipe[1],
                       stdin_pipe[0],
                       stdout_pipe[1],
                       stderr_pipe[1],
                       working_directory,
                       argv,
                       envp,
                       close_descriptors,
                       search_path,
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                       search_path_from_envp,
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                       stdout_to_null,
                       stderr_to_null,
                       child_inherits_stdin,
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                       file_and_argv_zero,
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                       child_setup,
                       user_data);
            }
          else
            {
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              write_all (child_pid_report_pipe[1], &grandchild_pid, sizeof(grandchild_pid));
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              close_and_invalidate (&child_pid_report_pipe[1]);
              
              _exit (0);
            }
        }
      else
        {
          /* Just run the child.
           */

          do_exec (child_err_report_pipe[1],
                   stdin_pipe[0],
                   stdout_pipe[1],
                   stderr_pipe[1],
                   working_directory,
                   argv,
                   envp,
                   close_descriptors,
                   search_path,
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                   search_path_from_envp,
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                   stdout_to_null,
                   stderr_to_null,
                   child_inherits_stdin,
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                   file_and_argv_zero,
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                   child_setup,
                   user_data);
        }
    }
  else
    {
      /* Parent */
      
      gint buf[2];
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      gint n_ints = 0;    
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      /* Close the uncared-about ends of the pipes */
      close_and_invalidate (&child_err_report_pipe[1]);
      close_and_invalidate (&child_pid_report_pipe[1]);
      close_and_invalidate (&stdin_pipe[0]);
      close_and_invalidate (&stdout_pipe[1]);
      close_and_invalidate (&stderr_pipe[1]);

      /* If we had an intermediate child, reap it */
      if (intermediate_child)
        {
        wait_again:
          if (waitpid (pid, &status, 0) < 0)
            {
              if (errno == EINTR)
                goto wait_again;
              else if (errno == ECHILD)
                ; /* do nothing, child already reaped */
              else
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                g_warning ("waitpid() should not fail in "
			   "'fork_exec_with_pipes'");
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            }
        }
      

      if (!read_ints (child_err_report_pipe[0],
                      buf, 2, &n_ints,
                      error))
        goto cleanup_and_fail;
        
      if (n_ints >= 2)
        {
          /* Error from the child. */

          switch (buf[0])
            {
            case CHILD_CHDIR_FAILED:
              g_set_error (error,
                           G_SPAWN_ERROR,
                           G_SPAWN_ERROR_CHDIR,
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                           _("Failed to change to directory “%s” (%s)"),
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                           working_directory,
                           g_strerror (buf[1]));

              break;
              
            case CHILD_EXEC_FAILED:
              g_set_error (error,
                           G_SPAWN_ERROR,
                           exec_err_to_g_error (buf[1]),
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                           _("Failed to execute child process “%s” (%s)"),
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                           argv[0],
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                           g_strerror (buf[1]));

              break;
              
            case CHILD_DUP2_FAILED:
              g_set_error (error,
                           G_SPAWN_ERROR,
                           G_SPAWN_ERROR_FAILED,
                           _("Failed to redirect output or input of child process (%s)"),
                           g_strerror (buf[1]));

              break;

            case CHILD_FORK_FAILED:
              g_set_error (error,
                           G_SPAWN_ERROR,
                           G_SPAWN_ERROR_FORK,
                           _("Failed to fork child process (%s)"),
                           g_strerror (buf[1]));
              break;
              
            default:
              g_set_error (error,
                           G_SPAWN_ERROR,
                           G_SPAWN_ERROR_FAILED,
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                           _("Unknown error executing child process “%s”"),
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                           argv[0]);
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              break;
            }

          goto cleanup_and_fail;
        }

      /* Get child pid from intermediate child pipe. */
      if (intermediate_child)
        {
          n_ints = 0;
          
          if (!read_ints (child_pid_report_pipe[0],
                          buf, 1, &n_ints, error))
            goto cleanup_and_fail;

          if (n_ints < 1)
            {
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              int errsv = errno;

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              g_set_error (error,
                           G_SPAWN_ERROR,
                           G_SPAWN_ERROR_FAILED,
                           _("Failed to read enough data from child pid pipe (%s)"),
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                           g_strerror (errsv));
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              goto cleanup_and_fail;
            }
          else
            {
              /* we have the child pid */
              pid = buf[0];
            }
        }
      
      /* Success against all odds! return the information */
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      close_and_invalidate (&child_err_report_pipe[0]);
      close_and_invalidate (&child_pid_report_pipe[0]);
 
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      if (child_pid)
        *child_pid = pid;

      if (standard_input)
        *standard_input = stdin_pipe[1];
      if (standard_output)
        *standard_output = stdout_pipe[0];
      if (standard_error)
        *standard_error = stderr_pipe[0];
      
      return TRUE;
    }

 cleanup_and_fail:
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  /* There was an error from the Child, reap the child to avoid it being
     a zombie.
   */

  if (pid > 0)
  {
    wait_failed:
     if (waitpid (pid, NULL, 0) < 0)
       {
          if (errno == EINTR)
            goto wait_failed;
          else if (errno == ECHILD)
            ; /* do nothing, child already reaped */
          else
            g_warning ("waitpid() should not fail in "
                       "'fork_exec_with_pipes'");
       }
   }

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  close_and_invalidate (&child_err_report_pipe[0]);
  close_and_invalidate (&child_err_report_pipe[1]);
  close_and_invalidate (&child_pid_report_pipe[0]);
  close_and_invalidate (&child_pid_report_pipe[1]);
  close_and_invalidate (&stdin_pipe[0]);
  close_and_invalidate (&stdin_pipe[1]);
  close_and_invalidate (&stdout_pipe[0]);
  close_and_invalidate (&stdout_pipe[1]);
  close_and_invalidate (&stderr_pipe[0]);
  close_and_invalidate (&stderr_pipe[1]);

  return FALSE;
}

/* Based on execvp from GNU C Library */

static void
script_execute (const gchar *file,
                gchar      **argv,
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                gchar      **envp)
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{
  /* Count the arguments.  */
  int argc = 0;
  while (argv[argc])
    ++argc;
  
  /* Construct an argument list for the shell.  */
  {
    gchar **new_argv;

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    new_argv = g_new0 (gchar*, argc + 2); /* /bin/sh and NULL */
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    new_argv[0] = (char *) "/bin/sh";
    new_argv[1] = (char *) file;
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    while (argc > 0)
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      {
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	new_argv[argc + 1] = argv[argc];
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	--argc;
      }

    /* Execute the shell. */
    if (envp)
      execve (new_argv[0], new_argv, envp);
    else
      execv (new_argv[0], new_argv);
    
    g_free (new_argv);
  }
}

static gchar*
my_strchrnul (const gchar *str, gchar c)
{
  gchar *p = (gchar*) str;
  while (*p && (*p != c))
    ++p;

  return p;
}

static gint
g_execute (const gchar *file,
           gchar      **argv,
           gchar      **envp,
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           gboolean     search_path,
           gboolean     search_path_from_envp)
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{
  if (*file == '\0')
    {
      /* We check the simple case first. */
      errno = ENOENT;
      return -1;
    }

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  if (!(search_path || search_path_from_envp) || strchr (file, '/') != NULL)
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    {
      /* Don't search when it contains a slash. */
      if (envp)
        execve (file, argv, envp);
      else
        execv (file, argv);
      
      if (errno == ENOEXEC)
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	script_execute (file, argv, envp);
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    }
  else
    {
      gboolean got_eacces = 0;
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      const gchar *path, *p;
      gchar *name, *freeme;
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      gsize len;
      gsize pathlen;
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      path = NULL;
      if (search_path_from_envp)
        path = g_environ_getenv (envp, "PATH");
      if (search_path && path == NULL)
        path = g_getenv ("PATH");

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      if (path == NULL)
	{
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	  /* There is no 'PATH' in the environment.  The default
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	   * search path in libc is the current directory followed by
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	   * the path 'confstr' returns for '_CS_PATH'.
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           */

          /* In GLib we put . last, for security, and don't use the
           * unportable confstr(); UNIX98 does not actually specify
           * what to search if PATH is unset. POSIX may, dunno.
           */
          
          path = "/bin:/usr/bin:.";
	}

      len = strlen (file) + 1;
      pathlen = strlen (path);
      freeme = name = g_malloc (pathlen + len + 1);
      
      /* Copy the file name at the top, including '\0'  */
      memcpy (name + pathlen + 1, file, len);
      name = name + pathlen;
      /* And add the slash before the filename  */
      *name = '/';

      p = path;
      do
	{
	  char *startp;

	  path = p;
	  p = my_strchrnul (path, ':');

	  if (p == path)
	    /* Two adjacent colons, or a colon at the beginning or the end
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             * of 'PATH' means to search the current directory.
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             */
	    startp = name + 1;
	  else
	    startp = memcpy (name - (p - path), path, p - path);

	  /* Try to execute this name.  If it works, execv will not return.  */
          if (envp)
            execve (startp, argv, envp);
          else
            execv (startp, argv);
          
	  if (errno == ENOEXEC)
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	    script_execute (startp, argv, envp);
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	  switch (errno)
	    {
	    case EACCES:
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	      /* Record the we got a 'Permission denied' error.  If we end
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               * up finding no executable we can use, we want to diagnose
               * that we did find one but were denied access.
               */
	      got_eacces = TRUE;

              /* FALL THRU */
              
	    case ENOENT:
#ifdef ESTALE
	    case ESTALE:
#endif
#ifdef ENOTDIR
	    case ENOTDIR:
#endif
	      /* Those errors indicate the file is missing or not executable
               * by us, in which case we want to just try the next path
               * directory.
               */
	      break;

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	    case ENODEV:
	    case ETIMEDOUT:
	      /* Some strange filesystems like AFS return even
	       * stranger error numbers.  They cannot reasonably mean anything
	       * else so ignore those, too.
	       */
	      break;

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	    default:
	      /* Some other error means we found an executable file, but
               * something went wrong executing it; return the error to our
               * caller.
               */
              g_free (freeme);
	      return -1;
	    }
	}
      while (*p++ != '\0');

      /* We tried every element and none of them worked.  */
      if (got_eacces)
	/* At least one failure was due to permissions, so report that
         * error.
         */
        errno = EACCES;

      g_free (freeme);
    }

  /* Return the error from the last attempt (probably ENOENT).  */
  return -1;
}
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/**
 * g_spawn_close_pid:
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 * @pid: The process reference to close
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 *
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 * On some platforms, notably Windows, the #GPid type represents a resource
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 * which must be closed to prevent resource leaking. g_spawn_close_pid()
 * is provided for this purpose. It should be used on all platforms, even
 * though it doesn't do anything under UNIX.
 **/
void
g_spawn_close_pid (GPid pid)
{
}