gcompris.texi 30.9 KB
Newer Older
Bruno Coudoin's avatar
Bruno Coudoin committed
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103
\input texinfo   @c -*-texinfo-*-
@c %**start of header
@setfilename gcompris.info
@settitle GCompris Documentation
@c %**end of header

@setchapternewpage odd

@dircategory Games
* gcompris: (gcompris.info).   Educational games for small children.
@end format
This is the documentation of GCompris. 
It contains both a user manual and
implementation detail suitable for developpers.

Copyright 2001 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is  granted to copy,  distribute and/or modify  this document
under the  terms of the GNU  Free Documentation License,  Version 1.1 or
any later  version published  by the Free  Software Foundation;  with no
Invariant  Sections, no Front-Cover  Texts and  no Back-Cover  Texts.  A
copy  of the  license  is included  in  the section  entitled "GNU  Free
Documentation License".
@end ifinfo

@sp 10
@comment The title is printed in a large font.
@titlefont{GCompris Documentation}
@author Written By Bruno Coudoin

@c The following two commands start the copyright page.
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
Copyright @copyright{} 2001 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

Permission is  granted to copy,  distribute and/or modify  this document
under the  terms of the GNU  Free Documentation License,  Version 1.1 or
any later  version published  by the Free  Software Foundation;  with no
Invariant  Sections, no Front-Cover  Texts and  no Back-Cover  Texts.  A
copy  of the  license  is included  in  the section  entitled "GNU  Free
Documentation License".
@end titlepage

@node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
@top Gcompris
@end ifnottex

* Introduction::		
* User Manual::			
* Internationalization Issues::			
* Developers Guide::		
* GNU Free Documentation License::  
* Concept Index::		
@end menu

@node    Introduction, User Manual, Top,      Top
@chapter Introduction
@section Why GCompris
GCompris intent is to provide a central location where a user can find different kind of small educational content called 'boards'.

Today there is already a lot of free software that provides a small education content.
Unfortunatly, it is difficult to track, intall and use them because they do not evolve
at the same speed and offer their own user interface.

GCompris aims to provide a unique user interface that gives access to different boards.

GCompris is part of the GNU project.

@cindex Objective of Gcompris

@node    User Manual, Internationalization Issues, Introduction, Top
@chapter User Manual
@section Control
All controls are designed to be user friendly for the youngest. For this reason, GCompris does not stick to the Gnome standard for user interfaces.
GCompris is controlled with a mouse. It cannot be used without a mouse or a pointer device.

@section Gameplay
@cindex Interface
@cindex GUI

@subsection Main window
Once started, GCompris presents a graphical view that includes from top to bottom:
Boards icon list

Each icon represent a board. When you move the mouse over them, they are highlighted and the name and description of the board is displayed in the board description area.
@dfn{Boards description area}

Display a small description of what the highlited board icon is about.
Note that the descriptions are internationalized which means translated in a target language (See @ref{Internationalization Issues} for more information on Internationalization).

Control bar:
Bruno Coudoin's avatar
Bruno Coudoin committed
@cindex Control bar
Bruno Coudoin's avatar
Bruno Coudoin committed
The control bar is always present in GCompris. This icons are contextual which means that when an icon is not meaningfull in a specific context, it is simply not displayed.
Bruno Coudoin's avatar
Bruno Coudoin committed
107 108 109 110

The control bar contains the icons from left to right:
Bruno Coudoin's avatar
Bruno Coudoin committed
112 113 114 115
@cindex Icon Help
In some case, a board can be too complex to be described in the @dfn{Board description area}. In this case this will provide access to the additionnal instructions.

Bruno Coudoin's avatar
Bruno Coudoin committed
117 118 119 120
@cindex Icon Level
Some boards provide different level. The number of levels is board dependant.

Bruno Coudoin's avatar
Bruno Coudoin committed
122 123 124 125
@cindex Icon OK
Some boards do not automatically detect that the child has finish the given task. Clicking here is similar to entering @key{RET} on the keyboard and thus the @key{RET} key is a shortcut.

126 127
@cindex Icon End
Bruno Coudoin's avatar
Bruno Coudoin committed
128 129 130 131
End the current board if any, otherwise Exit GCompris.
When entered at the board menu level, it will create a dialog window to confirm the Exit of GCompris.
@cindex Exiting from GCompris

132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142
@cindex Icon About
Display the about box for gcompris with the version number, the author, the licence and links to online resources.
@cindex About GCompris

@cindex Icon Configure
Display the configuration box for gcompris. Configuration can be done at gcompris level when no boards is selected.
If a board is selected, it can provides configuration options.
Configuration is persistent and saved in the gnome file in the user home directory under '.gcompris'.
144 145
@cindex Configuring GCompris

Bruno Coudoin's avatar
Bruno Coudoin committed
146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165
@end enumerate

@end enumerate

@subsection Starting a game
At the menu level, just click on the board icon.

@subsection Ending a game
In the control bar, select the right most icon.

@node    Internationalization Issues, Developers Guide, User Manual, Top
@chapter Internationalization Issues
@section Is my language supported?
GCompris is internationalized and today it already supports different languages.

To be sure you're one is done, you can check the 'po' directory found within GCompris source package. If your language is translated, it will contain a file of the form @file{fr.po} where fr means French.

If your language is not supported, you can provide help by doing it for GCompris. For instructions, contact the official project maintainer.

@section How to translate GCompris for my language
Bruno Coudoin's avatar
Bruno Coudoin committed
166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174
First, add your locale name in ALL_LINGUAS in configure.in
recreate the configure file with

Second, generate a fresh or new file @file{gcompris.pot} by using the command
@code{cd gcompris/po}
@code{make update-po}

Now, get the file @file{gcompris.pot}, copy it to a file named @file{XX.po} where XX stands for your locale like 'it' for Italian.
Bruno Coudoin's avatar
Bruno Coudoin committed
175 176 177

Read the file, it contains all the english text found in GCompris. You just need to write your translation in the empty area after each Engish sentence.

Bruno Coudoin's avatar
Bruno Coudoin committed
178 179 180 181
To check your translation, you must install gcompris with
@code{make install} at the top level.

Then, send the translation to the GCompris maintainer. He/She will add it into the next official release.
Bruno Coudoin's avatar
Bruno Coudoin committed
182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255

@node    Developers Guide, GNU Free Documentation License, Internationalization Issues, Top
@chapter Developers Guide
@section Why adding boards to GCompris
If you have a game idea that you feel suitable for children, you can create a new project, let's call it gIdea. If you start from scratch, you will have to implement a menu, a status bar, user feedback mecanism and so on.

If gIdea is not a complex and huge program, it can be easier and faster for you to implement your gIdea as a GCompris board.
This way, you benefit from all the current infrastucture and can focus only on your very Idea.

For the end user, it is also easier to have a unique interface to a bunch of different boards instead of having to install gIdea1 gIdea2 and so on.

It is not the intent of GCompris to becomes a new programming language. It is implemented in C and boards are implemented in C also. Boards and GCompris dynamically linked at runtime (plugins) which makes it possible to distribute new boards independently of the gcompris core.

Current implementation is based on the Gnome Canvas widget (see @uref{http://www.gnome.org} documentations). The Gnome Canvas provides a high level
widget that free programmers of bitmap manipulation when doing graphical application. In current implementation, it
is not possible to write boards using another widget. If it appears that the Canvas is not powerfull enough, GCompris
will have to be modified to support other widgets.

Another approach is to have smarter boards that can read data files and behaves accordingly. In this case we can envision a GCompris board editor that will let non
programmer add content to GCompris. Since the target of GCompris is definitly teachers and educators, this option seems very promising. Note that following this track, the shape board already receives its data through an XML file.

@section How to add boards to GCompris

@subsection The whole picture

@image{overview, 17cm, }

@subsection GCompris API

GCompris provides several sercices to boards developpers.
These services are described in the file gcompris/gcompris.h

@itemize @bullet

@code{GnomeCanvasItem *gcompris_set_background(GnomeCanvasGroup *parent, gchar *file);}

Set the background image for your game. You can get help from gameutil.h
to load the image.

@code{void gcompris_bar_set_level (GcomprisGame *gcomprisGame);}

The user did fine and has to go to the next level. 
Before calling it, @code{gcomprisGame->level} must be updated by the

@code{void gcompris_bar_set_timer (guint time);}

The timer is a progress bar that is usually used to inform the user
of were he/she is in the board. This value must be in the range
0 to 'maxtimer' given with @code{bar_set_maxtimer()}

@code{void bar_set_maxtimer (guint time);}

Set the max value of the progress bar.

So when you create a board, you must include gcompris/plugin.h to have
access to those methods (this is already included in gcompris/gcompris.h).

plugin.h also define the BoardPlugin structure. It is the heart
of GCompris. Each board creates its own BoardPlugin and give it back to
Gcompris when called in the get_bplugin_info() entry point:

@code{BoardPlugin* *get_bplugin_info ();}

The BoardPlugin returned structure must contains callbacks to your 
implementation methods.

The BoardPlugin structure must provide callbaks to at

256 257
@end itemize

Bruno Coudoin's avatar
Bruno Coudoin committed
258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333
@itemize @bullet

@code{void *GcomprisStartBoard     (GcomprisBoard *gcomprisBoard);}

This is called by GCompris when this board has been requested by the user

@code{void *GcomprisEndBoard      (void);}

This is called by GCompris when the user clicked 'end' in the control bar.

@end itemize

Optionnaly, a GComprisGame structure can contains callbacks to:

@itemize @bullet

@code{gint *GcomprisKeyPress     (guint keyval);}

If the board wants to receive user keypress, it must provide this
callback method. The keyval is not filtered and is returned as
Gnome return it. Check the Gnome documentation to understand how
to manipulate it.

@code{void *GcomprisOK           (void);}

This method is called when the user click the 'OK' button in the control
bar. It is a good practice to make the enter and return key behaves
as the 'ok' button, but it may not be always appropriate. For this reason,
it is the responsibility of the board implementation to do it.

@code{void *GcomprisSetLevel     (guint level);}

This is called with the level requested by the user.
You provide the maximum number of level you support in @code{gcomprisGame->maxlevel}.
 Gcompris will take care to call it only with a valid level value.

@end itemize

@subsection Example of duplicating an existing board to create your own

This describes all the steps required to add a new board to GCompris.

As an example, I describe here how I created the clock game.

Copy an existing game (closest to your new board).
@code{cp algebra.c clockgame.c}

Edit src/boards/Makefile.am and add the file to the list of lib_LTLIBRARIES
Then add at the end the entries for libclockgame_la_LDFLAGS, 
libclockgame_la_LIBADD and libclockgame_la_SOURCES. Look at examples in src/boards/Makefile.am
to see how to do that.

In clockgame.c replace all 'algebra' by 'clockgame'

In clockgame.c set the proper information for the new game:

@code{if(g_strcasecmp(gcomprisBoard->type, "clockgame")==0)}

  You must then create or copy the board description to the proper location

@code{cp boards/algebra.xml boards/clockgame.xml}

  Then edit clockgame.xml with a proper description and icon.
  Set the icon file at the location given in clockgame.xml.

334 335
In boards/Makefile.am add your file in the list. Respect the alphanumeric order.
Same step in po/POTFILES.in
Bruno Coudoin's avatar
Bruno Coudoin committed
336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772

make should compile everything fine.

make install is mandatory or the icon won't be find at runtime.

Now running gcompris should show up the new icon and you should be able
to play the game you did copy. Now it's time to code the board
in clockgame.c

Update the po files:

@code{cd gcompris/po}

@code{edit POTFILES.in and add src/clockgame.c)}


@code{make update-po}

Now you can add the translation in the po files.
'make' and then 'make install' will compile and install your translation.

@end enumerate

@node GNU Free Documentation License, Concept Index, Developers Guide, Top
@appendix GNU Free Documentation License

@cindex FDL, GNU Free Documentation License
@center Version 1.1, March 2000

Copyright @copyright{} 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
@end display

@enumerate 0

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
written document @dfn{free} in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone
the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without
modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.  Secondarily,
this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get
credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for
modifications made by others.

This License is a kind of ``copyleft'', which means that derivative
works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.  It
complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
license designed for free software.

We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
software does.  But this License is not limited to software manuals;
it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
whether it is published as a printed book.  We recommend this License
principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.


This License applies to any manual or other work that contains a
notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed
under the terms of this License.  The ``Document'', below, refers to any
such manual or work.  Any member of the public is a licensee, and is
addressed as ``you''.

A ``Modified Version'' of the Document means any work containing the
Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
modifications and/or translated into another language.

A ``Secondary Section'' is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject
(or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly
within that overall subject.  (For example, if the Document is in part a
textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any
mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of historical
connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding

The ``Invariant Sections'' are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
that says that the Document is released under this License.

The ``Cover Texts'' are certain short passages of text that are listed,
as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
the Document is released under this License.

A ``Transparent'' copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
represented in a format whose specification is available to the
general public, whose contents can be viewed and edited directly and
straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
to text formatters.  A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
format whose markup has been designed to thwart or discourage
subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.  A copy that is
not ``Transparent'' is called ``Opaque''.

Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
@sc{ascii} without markup, Texinfo input format, La@TeX{} input format,
@acronym{SGML} or @acronym{XML} using a publicly available
@acronym{DTD}, and standard-conforming simple @acronym{HTML} designed
for human modification.  Opaque formats include PostScript,
@acronym{PDF}, proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
proprietary word processors, @acronym{SGML} or @acronym{XML} for which
the @acronym{DTD} and/or processing tools are not generally available,
and the machine-generated @acronym{HTML} produced by some word
processors for output purposes only.

The ``Title Page'' means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
this License requires to appear in the title page.  For works in
formats which do not have any title page as such, ``Title Page'' means
the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
preceding the beginning of the body of the text.


You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You may not use
technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However, you may accept
compensation in exchange for copies.  If you distribute a large enough
number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.

You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
you may publicly display copies.


If you publish printed copies of the Document numbering more than 100,
and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose
the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
you as the publisher of these copies.  The front cover must present
the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
visible.  You may add other material on the covers in addition.
Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
as verbatim copying in other respects.

If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent

If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
a publicly-accessible computer-network location containing a complete
Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material, which the
general network-using public has access to download anonymously at no
charge using public-standard network protocols.  If you use the latter
option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin
distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this
Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location
until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque
copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to
the public.

It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give
them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.


You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
of it.  In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:

@enumerate A
Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
(which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
of the Document).  You may use the same title as a previous version
if the original publisher of that version gives permission.

List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
Document (all of its principal authors, if it has less than five).

State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
Modified Version, as the publisher.

Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
adjacent to the other copyright notices.

Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.

Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.

Include an unaltered copy of this License.

Preserve the section entitled ``History'', and its title, and add to
it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page.  If
there is no section entitled ``History'' in the Document, create one
stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
Version as stated in the previous sentence.

Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
it was based on.  These may be placed in the ``History'' section.
You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.

In any section entitled ``Acknowledgments'' or ``Dedications'',
preserve the section's title, and preserve in the section all the
substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgments
and/or dedications given therein.

Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.

Delete any section entitled ``Endorsements''.  Such a section
may not be included in the Modified Version.

Do not retitle any existing section as ``Endorsements''
or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
@end enumerate

If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
of these sections as invariant.  To do this, add their titles to the
list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.

You may add a section entitled ``Endorsements'', provided it contains
nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
parties---for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a

You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one passage of
Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the Document already
includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.

The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
imply endorsement of any Modified Version.


You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
license notice.

The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.

In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled ``History''
in the various original documents, forming one section entitled
``History''; likewise combine any sections entitled ``Acknowledgments'',
and any sections entitled ``Dedications''.  You must delete all sections
entitled ``Endorsements.''


You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in
the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.

You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute
it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this
License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all
other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.


A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
distribution medium, does not as a whole count as a Modified Version
of the Document, provided no compilation copyright is claimed for the
compilation.  Such a compilation is called an ``aggregate'', and this
License does not apply to the other self-contained works thus compiled
with the Document, on account of their being thus compiled, if they
are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one quarter
of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
covers that surround only the Document within the aggregate.
Otherwise they must appear on covers around the whole aggregate.


Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
translation of this License provided that you also include the
original English version of this License.  In case of a disagreement
between the translation and the original English version of this
License, the original English version will prevail.


You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
as expressly provided for under this License.  Any other attempt to
copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
automatically terminate your rights under this License.  However,
parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
parties remain in full compliance.


The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions
of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See

Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
License ``or any later version'' applies to it, you have the option of
following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
Free Software Foundation.  If the Document does not specify a version
number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
@end enumerate

@appendixsubsec ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and
license notices just after the title page:

  Copyright (C)  @var{year}  @var{your name}.
  Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1
  or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
  with the Invariant Sections being @var{list their titles}, with the
  Front-Cover Texts being @var{list}, and with the Back-Cover Texts being @var{list}.
  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
  Free Documentation License''.
@end group
@end smallexample

If you have no Invariant Sections, write ``with no Invariant Sections''
instead of saying which ones are invariant.  If you have no
Front-Cover Texts, write ``no Front-Cover Texts'' instead of
``Front-Cover Texts being @var{list}''; likewise for Back-Cover Texts.

If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
to permit their use in free software.

@node     Concept Index,  , GNU Free Documentation License, Top
@comment      node-name, next,       previous, up
@unnumbered Concept Index
@printindex cp